Chemical Fundamentals of Geology and Environmental Geoscience.

By: Gill, RobinSeries: Wiley Desktop EditionsPublisher: Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2015Copyright date: ©2015Edition: 3rd edDescription: 1 online resource (288 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781118957936Subject(s): GeochemistryGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Chemical Fundamentals of Geology and Environmental GeoscienceDDC classification: 540.24/553 LOC classification: QD39.2 -- .G55 2015ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- Chemical Fundamentals of Geology and Environmental Geoscience -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface to the Third Edition -- Preface to the Second Edition -- Preface to the First Edition -- Acknowledgements -- About the Companion Website -- Chapter 1 Energy in Geochemical Processes -- Introduction -- Energy in mechanical systems -- Energy in chemical and mineral systems: free energy -- Units -- Free-energy changes -- Stable, unstable and metastable minerals -- Further reading -- Chapter 2 Equilibrium in Geological Systems -- The significance of mineral stability -- Systems, phases and components -- System -- Phase -- Component -- Equilibrium -- Phase diagrams in P-T space -- Le Chatelier's principle -- The Clapeyron equation -- Phase diagrams in T-X space -- Crystallization in systems with no solid solution -- Crystallization in systems with solid solution -- The solvus and exsolution -- Ternary phase diagrams -- Ternary phase diagram with no solid solution -- Ternary phase diagram with solid solution -- Review -- Further reading -- Sources of thermodynamic data for minerals -- Exercises -- Chapter 3 Kinetics of Earth Processes -- Defining the rate of a reaction -- Rate equation -- Heterogeneous reactions -- Temperature-dependence of reaction rate -- Photochemical reactions -- Diffusion -- Solid-state diffusion -- Melt viscosity -- Persistence of metastable minerals: closure temperature -- Review -- Further reading -- Exercises -- Chapter 4 Aqueous Solutions and the Hydrosphere -- Ways of expressing the concentrations of major constituents -- Solutions -- Solids -- Gases -- Equilibrium constant -- Solubility and the solubility product -- Other kinds of equilibrium constant -- Non-ideal solutions: activity coefficient -- Ionic strength -- Natural waters -- River water (I<0.01molkg−1): Debye-Hückel Theory -- Seawater (I=0.7molkg−1).
Brines and hydrothermal fluids (I>1.0molkg-1) -- Oxidation and reduction: Eh-pH diagrams -- Case study - arsenic in Bangladesh groundwater and drinking water -- Further reading -- Exercises -- Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms -- Why does a geologist need to understand atoms? -- The atom -- The mechanics of atomic particles -- Stationary waves -- Harmonics -- Electron waves in atoms -- The shapes of electron orbitals -- s-orbitals -- p-orbitals -- d-orbitals -- f-orbitals -- Electron energy levels -- Multi-electron atoms -- Electronic configurations -- Review -- Further reading -- Exercises -- Chapter 6 What We Can Learn From the Periodic Table -- Ionization energy -- The Periodic Table -- Electronegativity -- Valency -- Atomic spectra -- X-ray spectra -- Review -- Further reading -- Exercises -- Chapter 7 Chemical Bonding and the Properties of Minerals -- The ionic model of bonding -- Ionic crystals: stacking of spheres in three dimensions -- The covalent model of bonding -- σ- and π-bonds -- Molecular shape: hybridization -- The co-ordinate bond -- Metals and semiconductors -- Bonding in minerals -- Anion polarizability: non-ideal ionic bonds -- Polarization of a covalent bond: ionicity -- Bonding in silicates -- Oxy-anions -- Pure elements, alloys and sulfides -- Other types of atomic and molecular interaction -- Ion-dipole interactions: hydration -- Dipole-dipole interactions: hydrogen bonding -- Induced-dipole (van der Waals) interactions -- Review -- Further reading -- Exercises -- Chapter 8 Silicate Crystals and Melts -- Silicate polymers -- Monomer silicates -- Dimer silicates -- Chain silicates -- Ring silicates -- Double-chain silicates -- Sheet silicates -- Framework silicates -- Cation sites in silicates -- Calculating site occupancies -- Effects of cation substitution -- Optical properties of crystals -- Refractive index.
Colour and absorption -- Reflectivity -- Anisotropy -- Defects in crystals -- Crystal growth -- Mechanical strength of crystals -- Further reading -- Exercises -- Chapter 9 Some Geologically Important Elements -- Major and trace elements -- Major elements -- Trace elements -- Alkali metals -- Radioactive alkali metals -- Hydrogen -- Alkaline earth metals -- Aluminium -- Carbon -- Organic carbon -- Inorganic carbon -- Carbon isotopes -- Silicon -- Nitrogen and phosphorus -- Oxygen -- Sulfur -- Reduced sulfur compounds -- Oxidized sulfur compounds -- Fluorine -- Chlorine and other halogens -- Noble gases -- Transition metals -- Rare earth elements -- Actinides -- Further reading -- Exercise -- Chapter 10 What Can We Learn from Isotopes? -- Isotope systems -- Radiogenic isotope systems -- K-Ar geochronology -- Rb-Sr geochronology -- The Sm-Nd radiogenic isotope system -- Stable isotope systems -- Notation -- Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes - keys to past climates -- Carbon stable isotopes - detecting signs of ancient life -- Mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes -- Transition metal stable isotopes -- Cosmogenic radioisotope systems -- Radiocarbon dating -- Review -- Further reading -- Exercises -- Chapter 11 The Elements in the Universe -- The significance of element abundance -- Measuring cosmic and Solar System abundances -- Spectral analysis -- Analysis of meteorites -- Dark matter -- The composite abundance curve -- Cosmic element production -- The Hot Big Bang -- Stars -- Supernovae -- Elements in the Solar System -- Cosmochemical classification -- Volatile versus refractory -- Element fractionation in the Solar System -- Evolution of the Solar System -- Chemical evolution of the Earth -- The core -- The mantle -- The crust -- The early atmosphere -- Life and oxygenic photosynthesis -- Future prospects -- Review -- Further reading.
Exercises -- Answers to Exercises -- Chapter 2 -- Chapter 3 -- Chapter 4 -- Chapter 5 -- Chapter 6 -- Chapter 7 -- Chapter 8 -- Chapter 9 -- Chapter 10 -- Chapter 11 -- Appendix A: Mathematics Revision -- SI units of measurement -- Equation of a straight line -- Gradient of a curve -- Logarithms ('logs') and their inverse -- Inverse square 'law' -- Dimensions and units in calculations -- Experimental verification of a theoretical relationship -- Significant figures -- Further reading -- Appendix B: Simple Solution Chemistry -- Acids and bases -- Ionization of water: pH -- Further reading -- Appendix C: Alphabetical List of Chemical Abreviations and Element Names, with Atomic Number and Relative Atomic Mass -- Appendix D: Symbols, Units,Constants and Abreviations Used in this Book -- Glossary -- References -- Index -- Supplemental Images -- End User License Agreement.
Summary: Chemical principles are fundamental to the Earth sciences, and geoscience students increasingly require a firm grasp of basic chemistry to succeed in their studies. The enlarged third edition of this highly regarded textbook introduces the student to such 'geo-relevant' chemistry, presented in the same lucid and accessible style as earlier editions, but the new edition has been strengthened in its coverage of environmental geoscience and incorporates a new chapter introducing isotope geochemistry. The book comprises three broad sections. The first (Chapters 1-4) deals with the basic physical chemistry of geological processes. The second (Chapters 5-8) introduces the wave-mechanical view of the atom and explains the various types of chemical bonding that give Earth  materials their diverse and distinctive properties. The final chapters (9-11) survey the geologically relevant elements and isotopes, and explain their formation and their abundances in the cosmos and the Earth. The book concludes with an extensive glossary of terms; appendices cover basic maths, explain basic solution chemistry, and list the chemical elements and the symbols, units and constants used in the book.
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Intro -- Chemical Fundamentals of Geology and Environmental Geoscience -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface to the Third Edition -- Preface to the Second Edition -- Preface to the First Edition -- Acknowledgements -- About the Companion Website -- Chapter 1 Energy in Geochemical Processes -- Introduction -- Energy in mechanical systems -- Energy in chemical and mineral systems: free energy -- Units -- Free-energy changes -- Stable, unstable and metastable minerals -- Further reading -- Chapter 2 Equilibrium in Geological Systems -- The significance of mineral stability -- Systems, phases and components -- System -- Phase -- Component -- Equilibrium -- Phase diagrams in P-T space -- Le Chatelier's principle -- The Clapeyron equation -- Phase diagrams in T-X space -- Crystallization in systems with no solid solution -- Crystallization in systems with solid solution -- The solvus and exsolution -- Ternary phase diagrams -- Ternary phase diagram with no solid solution -- Ternary phase diagram with solid solution -- Review -- Further reading -- Sources of thermodynamic data for minerals -- Exercises -- Chapter 3 Kinetics of Earth Processes -- Defining the rate of a reaction -- Rate equation -- Heterogeneous reactions -- Temperature-dependence of reaction rate -- Photochemical reactions -- Diffusion -- Solid-state diffusion -- Melt viscosity -- Persistence of metastable minerals: closure temperature -- Review -- Further reading -- Exercises -- Chapter 4 Aqueous Solutions and the Hydrosphere -- Ways of expressing the concentrations of major constituents -- Solutions -- Solids -- Gases -- Equilibrium constant -- Solubility and the solubility product -- Other kinds of equilibrium constant -- Non-ideal solutions: activity coefficient -- Ionic strength -- Natural waters -- River water (I<0.01molkg−1): Debye-Hückel Theory -- Seawater (I=0.7molkg−1).

Brines and hydrothermal fluids (I>1.0molkg-1) -- Oxidation and reduction: Eh-pH diagrams -- Case study - arsenic in Bangladesh groundwater and drinking water -- Further reading -- Exercises -- Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms -- Why does a geologist need to understand atoms? -- The atom -- The mechanics of atomic particles -- Stationary waves -- Harmonics -- Electron waves in atoms -- The shapes of electron orbitals -- s-orbitals -- p-orbitals -- d-orbitals -- f-orbitals -- Electron energy levels -- Multi-electron atoms -- Electronic configurations -- Review -- Further reading -- Exercises -- Chapter 6 What We Can Learn From the Periodic Table -- Ionization energy -- The Periodic Table -- Electronegativity -- Valency -- Atomic spectra -- X-ray spectra -- Review -- Further reading -- Exercises -- Chapter 7 Chemical Bonding and the Properties of Minerals -- The ionic model of bonding -- Ionic crystals: stacking of spheres in three dimensions -- The covalent model of bonding -- σ- and π-bonds -- Molecular shape: hybridization -- The co-ordinate bond -- Metals and semiconductors -- Bonding in minerals -- Anion polarizability: non-ideal ionic bonds -- Polarization of a covalent bond: ionicity -- Bonding in silicates -- Oxy-anions -- Pure elements, alloys and sulfides -- Other types of atomic and molecular interaction -- Ion-dipole interactions: hydration -- Dipole-dipole interactions: hydrogen bonding -- Induced-dipole (van der Waals) interactions -- Review -- Further reading -- Exercises -- Chapter 8 Silicate Crystals and Melts -- Silicate polymers -- Monomer silicates -- Dimer silicates -- Chain silicates -- Ring silicates -- Double-chain silicates -- Sheet silicates -- Framework silicates -- Cation sites in silicates -- Calculating site occupancies -- Effects of cation substitution -- Optical properties of crystals -- Refractive index.

Colour and absorption -- Reflectivity -- Anisotropy -- Defects in crystals -- Crystal growth -- Mechanical strength of crystals -- Further reading -- Exercises -- Chapter 9 Some Geologically Important Elements -- Major and trace elements -- Major elements -- Trace elements -- Alkali metals -- Radioactive alkali metals -- Hydrogen -- Alkaline earth metals -- Aluminium -- Carbon -- Organic carbon -- Inorganic carbon -- Carbon isotopes -- Silicon -- Nitrogen and phosphorus -- Oxygen -- Sulfur -- Reduced sulfur compounds -- Oxidized sulfur compounds -- Fluorine -- Chlorine and other halogens -- Noble gases -- Transition metals -- Rare earth elements -- Actinides -- Further reading -- Exercise -- Chapter 10 What Can We Learn from Isotopes? -- Isotope systems -- Radiogenic isotope systems -- K-Ar geochronology -- Rb-Sr geochronology -- The Sm-Nd radiogenic isotope system -- Stable isotope systems -- Notation -- Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes - keys to past climates -- Carbon stable isotopes - detecting signs of ancient life -- Mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes -- Transition metal stable isotopes -- Cosmogenic radioisotope systems -- Radiocarbon dating -- Review -- Further reading -- Exercises -- Chapter 11 The Elements in the Universe -- The significance of element abundance -- Measuring cosmic and Solar System abundances -- Spectral analysis -- Analysis of meteorites -- Dark matter -- The composite abundance curve -- Cosmic element production -- The Hot Big Bang -- Stars -- Supernovae -- Elements in the Solar System -- Cosmochemical classification -- Volatile versus refractory -- Element fractionation in the Solar System -- Evolution of the Solar System -- Chemical evolution of the Earth -- The core -- The mantle -- The crust -- The early atmosphere -- Life and oxygenic photosynthesis -- Future prospects -- Review -- Further reading.

Exercises -- Answers to Exercises -- Chapter 2 -- Chapter 3 -- Chapter 4 -- Chapter 5 -- Chapter 6 -- Chapter 7 -- Chapter 8 -- Chapter 9 -- Chapter 10 -- Chapter 11 -- Appendix A: Mathematics Revision -- SI units of measurement -- Equation of a straight line -- Gradient of a curve -- Logarithms ('logs') and their inverse -- Inverse square 'law' -- Dimensions and units in calculations -- Experimental verification of a theoretical relationship -- Significant figures -- Further reading -- Appendix B: Simple Solution Chemistry -- Acids and bases -- Ionization of water: pH -- Further reading -- Appendix C: Alphabetical List of Chemical Abreviations and Element Names, with Atomic Number and Relative Atomic Mass -- Appendix D: Symbols, Units,Constants and Abreviations Used in this Book -- Glossary -- References -- Index -- Supplemental Images -- End User License Agreement.

Chemical principles are fundamental to the Earth sciences, and geoscience students increasingly require a firm grasp of basic chemistry to succeed in their studies. The enlarged third edition of this highly regarded textbook introduces the student to such 'geo-relevant' chemistry, presented in the same lucid and accessible style as earlier editions, but the new edition has been strengthened in its coverage of environmental geoscience and incorporates a new chapter introducing isotope geochemistry. The book comprises three broad sections. The first (Chapters 1-4) deals with the basic physical chemistry of geological processes. The second (Chapters 5-8) introduces the wave-mechanical view of the atom and explains the various types of chemical bonding that give Earth  materials their diverse and distinctive properties. The final chapters (9-11) survey the geologically relevant elements and isotopes, and explain their formation and their abundances in the cosmos and the Earth. The book concludes with an extensive glossary of terms; appendices cover basic maths, explain basic solution chemistry, and list the chemical elements and the symbols, units and constants used in the book.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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