LED Lighting : Technology and Perception.

By: Khan, T. QContributor(s): Bodrogi, P | Vinh, Q. T | Winkler, HPublisher: Weinheim : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2015Copyright date: ©2015Edition: 1st edDescription: 1 online resource (517 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9783527670178Subject(s): Light emitting diodesGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: LED Lighting : Technology and PerceptionDDC classification: 620.11295 LOC classification: TK7871.89.L53 -- L43 2015ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- LED Lighting -- Foreword -- Contents -- Table of the Coauthors -- Preface -- Chapter 1 Introduction -- Reference -- Chapter 2 The Human Visual System and Its Modeling for Lighting Engineering -- 2.1 Visual System Basics -- 2.1.1 The Way of Visual Information -- 2.1.2 Perception -- 2.1.3 Structure of the Human Eye -- 2.1.4 The Pupil -- 2.1.5 Accommodation -- 2.1.6 The Retina -- 2.1.7 Cone Mosaic and Spectral Sensitivities -- 2.1.8 Receptive Fields and Spatial Vision -- 2.2 Radiometry and Photometry -- 2.2.1 Radiant Power (Radiant Flux) and Luminous Flux -- 2.2.2 Irradiance and Illuminance -- 2.2.3 Radiant Intensity and Luminous Intensity -- 2.2.4 Radiance and Luminance -- 2.2.5 Degrees of Efficiency for Electric Light Sources -- 2.3 Colorimetry and Color Science -- 2.3.1 Color Matching Functions and Tristimulus Values -- 2.3.2 Color Appearance, Chromatic Adaptation, Color Spaces, and Color Appearance Models -- 2.3.2.1 Perceived Attributes of Color Perception -- 2.3.2.2 Chromatic Adaptation -- 2.3.2.3 CIELAB Color Space -- 2.3.2.4 The CIECAM02 Color Appearance Model -- 2.3.3 Modeling of Color Difference Perception -- 2.3.3.1 MacAdam Ellipses -- 2.3.3.2 u', v' Chromaticity Diagram -- 2.3.3.3 CIELAB Color Difference -- 2.3.3.4 CAM02-UCS Uniform Color Space and Color Difference -- 2.3.4 Blackbody Radiators and Phases of Daylight in the x, y Chromaticity Diagram -- 2.4 LED Specific Spectral and Colorimetric Quantities -- 2.4.1 Peak Wavelength (λP) -- 2.4.2 Spectral Bandwidth at Half Intensity Level (Δλ0.5) -- 2.4.3 Centroid Wavelength (λC) -- 2.4.4 Colorimetric Quantities Derived from the Spectral Radiance Distribution of the LED Light Source -- 2.4.4.1 Dominant Wavelength (λD) -- 2.4.4.2 Colorimetric Purity (pC) -- 2.5 Circadian Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation -- 2.5.1 The Human Circadian Clock -- References.
Chapter 3 LED Components - Principles of Radiation Generation and Packaging -- 3.1 Introduction to LED Technology -- 3.2 Basic Knowledge on Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 3.2.1 Injection Luminescence -- 3.2.2 Homo-Junction, Hetero-Junction, and Quantum Well -- 3.2.2.1 Homo-Junction -- 3.2.2.2 Hetero-Junction -- 3.2.2.3 Quantum Well -- 3.2.3 Recombination -- 3.2.3.1 Direct and Indirect Recombination -- 3.2.3.2 Radiative and Nonradiative Recombinations and Their Simple Theoretical Quantification -- 3.2.4 Efficiency -- 3.2.4.1 Internal Quantum Efficiency (ηi) -- 3.2.4.2 Injection Efficiency (ηinj) -- 3.2.4.3 Light Extraction Efficiency (ηextraction) -- 3.2.4.4 External Quantum Efficiency (ηext) -- 3.2.4.5 Radiant Efficiency (ηe, See Section 2.2.5, Eq. (2.13)) -- 3.2.4.6 Luminous Efficacy (ηv) -- 3.2.5 Semiconductor Material Systems - Efficiency, Possibilities, and Limits -- 3.2.5.1 Possible Semiconductor Systems -- 3.2.5.2 Semiconductor Systems for Amber-Red Semiconductor LEDs -- 3.2.5.3 Semiconductor Systems for UV-Blue-Green Semiconductor LEDs -- 3.2.5.4 The Green Efficiency Gap of Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 3.3 Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 3.3.1 Concepts of Matter Waves of de Broglie -- 3.3.2 The Physical Mechanism of Photon Emission -- 3.3.3 Theoretical Absolute Spectral Power Distribution of a Color Semiconductor LED -- 3.3.4 Characteristic Parameters of the LEDs Absolute Spectral Power Distribution -- 3.3.5 Role of the Input Forward Current -- 3.3.6 Summary -- 3.4 Phosphor Systems and White Phosphor-Converted LEDs -- 3.4.1 Introduction to Phosphors -- 3.4.2 Luminescence Mechanisms -- 3.4.3 Aluminum Garnets -- 3.4.4 Alkaline Earth Sulfides -- 3.4.5 Alkaline Earth Ortho-Silicates -- 3.4.6 Alkaline Earth Oxy-Ortho-Silicates -- 3.4.7 Nitride Phosphors -- 3.4.7.1 CASN -- 3.4.7.2 2-5-8-Nitrides -- 3.4.7.3 1-2-2-2 Oxynitrides -- 3.4.7.4 β-SiAlON.
3.4.8 Phosphor-Coating Methods -- 3.4.9 Challenges of Volumetric Dispensing Methods -- 3.4.10 Influence of Phosphor Concentration and Thickness on LED Spectra -- 3.5 Green and Red Phosphor-Converted LEDs -- 3.5.1 The Phosphor-Converted System -- 3.5.2 Chromaticity Considerations -- 3.5.3 Phosphor Mixtures for the White Phosphor-Converted LEDs -- 3.5.4 Colorimetric Characteristics of the Phosphor-Converted LEDs -- 3.6 Optimization of LED Chip-Packaging Technology -- 3.6.1 Efficiency Improvement for the LED Chip -- 3.6.2 Molding and Positioning of the Phosphor System -- 3.6.3 Substrate Technology - Integration Degree -- References -- Chapter 4 Measurement and Modeling of the LED Light Source -- 4.1 LED Radiometry, Photometry, and Colorimetry -- 4.1.1 Spatially Resolved Luminance and Color Measurement of LED Components -- 4.1.2 Integrating Sphere Based Spectral Radiant Flux and Luminous Flux Measurement -- 4.2 Thermal and Electric Behavior of Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.2.1 Temperature and Current Dependence of Color Semiconductor LED Spectra -- 4.2.1.1 Temperature Dependence of Color Semiconductor LED Spectra -- 4.2.1.2 Current Dependence of Color Semiconductor LED Spectra -- 4.2.2 Temperature and Current Dependence of Radiant Flux and Radiant Efficiency of Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.2.2.1 Temperature Dependence of Radiant Flux and Radiant Efficiency of Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.2.2.2 Current Dependence of Radiant Flux and Radiant Efficiency of Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.2.2.3 Conclusion -- 4.2.3 Temperature and Current Dependence of the Chromaticity Difference of Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.2.3.1 Temperature Dependence of the Chromaticity Difference of the Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.2.3.2 Current Dependence of Chromaticity Difference of the Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.3 Thermal and Electric Behavior of White Phosphor-Converted LEDs.
4.3.1 Temperature and Current Dependence of Warm White PC-LED Spectra -- 4.3.1.1 Temperature Dependence of Warm White PC-LED Spectra -- 4.3.1.2 Current Dependence of Warm White PC-LED Spectra -- 4.3.2 Current Limits for the Color Rendering Index, Luminous Efficacy, and White Point for Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.3.2.1 General Considerations -- 4.3.2.2 Comparison of Color Rendering Index and Luminous Efficacy -- 4.3.2.3 White Point of the Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.3.3 Temperature and Current Dependence of the Luminous Flux and Luminous Efficacy of Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.3.3.1 Temperature Dependence of the Luminous Flux and Luminous Efficacy of Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.3.3.2 Current Dependence of Luminous Flux and Luminous Efficacy of Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.3.4 Temperature and Current Dependence of the Chromaticity Difference of Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.3.4.1 Temperature Dependence of the Chromaticity Difference of Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.3.4.2 Current Dependence of the Chromaticity Difference of Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.4 Consequences for LED Selection Under Real Operation Conditions -- 4.4.1 Chromaticity Differences Between the Operating Point and the Cold Binning Point -- 4.4.2 Chromaticity Difference Between the Operating Point and the Hot Binning Point -- 4.5 LED Electrical Model -- 4.5.1 Theoretical Approach for an Ideal Diode -- 4.5.2 A LED Experimental Electrical Model Based on the Circuit Technology -- 4.5.3 An Example for a Limited Electrical Model for LEDs -- 4.5.3.1 Limited Operating Range -- 4.5.3.2 Mathematical Description of the LEDs Forward Current in the Limited Operating Range -- 4.5.3.3 An Example for the Application of the Limited Electrical Model -- 4.5.3.4 Evaluation and Improvement of the Electrical Model -- 4.6 LED Spectral Model -- 4.6.1 Spectral Models of Color Semiconductor LEDs and White PC-LEDs -- 4.6.1.1 Mathematical Approach.
4.6.2 An Example for a Color Semiconductor LED Spectral Model -- 4.6.2.1 Experiments on Spectral Models for Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.6.3 An Example for a PC-LED Spectral Model -- 4.6.3.1 Experiments for the Spectral Models of White PC-LEDs -- 4.7 Thermal Relationships and Thermal LED Models -- 4.7.1 Thermal Relationships in LEDs -- 4.7.1.1 Thermal Structure of a Typical LED -- 4.7.1.2 A Typical Equivalent Thermal Circuit -- 4.7.1.3 External Thermal Resistance -- 4.7.2 One-Dimensional Thermal Models -- 4.7.2.1 The First Order Thermal Circuit -- 4.7.2.2 Second Order Thermal Circuit -- 4.7.2.3 The nth Order Thermal Circuit -- 4.7.2.4 The Transient Function and Its Weighting Function -- 4.7.2.5 Conclusions -- 4.8 Measurement Methods to Determine the Thermal Characteristics of LED Devices -- 4.8.1 Measurement Methods and Procedures -- 4.8.1.1 Selection of an Available Measurement Method -- 4.8.1.2 Description of the Cooling Measurement Procedure -- 4.8.2 Description of a Typical Measurement System and Its Calibration -- 4.8.2.1 Components and Structure of the Measurement System -- 4.8.2.2 Determination of Thermal Power and Calibration Factor for Several LEDs -- 4.8.3 Methods of Thermal Map Decoding -- 4.8.3.1 Decoding of the Thermal Map by the Method of the Structure Function -- 4.8.3.2 Thermal Map Decoding by the Euclidean Algorithm -- 4.9 Thermal and Optical Behavior of Blue LEDs, Silicon Systems, and Phosphor Systems -- 4.9.1 Selection of LEDs and Their Optical Behavior -- 4.9.2 Efficiency of the LEDs -- 4.9.3 Results of Thermal Decoding by the Structure Function Method -- 4.9.4 Results of Thermal Decoding by the Method of the Euclidean Algorithm -- 4.10 Aging Behavior of High-Power LED Components -- 4.10.1 Degradation and Failure Mechanisms of LED Components -- 4.10.2 Research on the Aging Behavior of High-Power-LEDs.
4.10.2.1 Change of Spectral Distribution and Chromaticity Coordinates.
Summary: Promoting the design, application and evaluation of visually and electrically effective LED light sources and luminaires for general indoor lighting as well as outdoor and vehicle lighting, this book combines the knowledge of LED lighting technology with human perceptual aspects for lighting scientists and engineers. After an introduction to the human visual system and current radiometry, photometry and color science, the basics of LED chip and phosphor technology are described followed by specific issues of LED radiometry and the optical, thermal and electric modeling of LEDs. This is supplemented by the relevant practical issues of pulsed LEDs, remote phosphor LEDs and the aging of LED light sources. Relevant human visual aspects closely related to LED technology are described in detail for the photopic and the mesopic range of vision, including color rendering, binning, whiteness, Circadian issues, as well as flicker perception, brightness, visual performance, conspicuity and disability glare. The topic of LED luminaires is discussed in a separate chapter, including retrofit LED lamps, LED-based road and street luminaires and LED luminaires for museum and school lighting. Specific sections are devoted to the modularity of LED luminaires, their aging and the planning and evaluation methods of new LED installations. The whole is rounded off by a summary and a look towards future developments.
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Intro -- LED Lighting -- Foreword -- Contents -- Table of the Coauthors -- Preface -- Chapter 1 Introduction -- Reference -- Chapter 2 The Human Visual System and Its Modeling for Lighting Engineering -- 2.1 Visual System Basics -- 2.1.1 The Way of Visual Information -- 2.1.2 Perception -- 2.1.3 Structure of the Human Eye -- 2.1.4 The Pupil -- 2.1.5 Accommodation -- 2.1.6 The Retina -- 2.1.7 Cone Mosaic and Spectral Sensitivities -- 2.1.8 Receptive Fields and Spatial Vision -- 2.2 Radiometry and Photometry -- 2.2.1 Radiant Power (Radiant Flux) and Luminous Flux -- 2.2.2 Irradiance and Illuminance -- 2.2.3 Radiant Intensity and Luminous Intensity -- 2.2.4 Radiance and Luminance -- 2.2.5 Degrees of Efficiency for Electric Light Sources -- 2.3 Colorimetry and Color Science -- 2.3.1 Color Matching Functions and Tristimulus Values -- 2.3.2 Color Appearance, Chromatic Adaptation, Color Spaces, and Color Appearance Models -- 2.3.2.1 Perceived Attributes of Color Perception -- 2.3.2.2 Chromatic Adaptation -- 2.3.2.3 CIELAB Color Space -- 2.3.2.4 The CIECAM02 Color Appearance Model -- 2.3.3 Modeling of Color Difference Perception -- 2.3.3.1 MacAdam Ellipses -- 2.3.3.2 u', v' Chromaticity Diagram -- 2.3.3.3 CIELAB Color Difference -- 2.3.3.4 CAM02-UCS Uniform Color Space and Color Difference -- 2.3.4 Blackbody Radiators and Phases of Daylight in the x, y Chromaticity Diagram -- 2.4 LED Specific Spectral and Colorimetric Quantities -- 2.4.1 Peak Wavelength (λP) -- 2.4.2 Spectral Bandwidth at Half Intensity Level (Δλ0.5) -- 2.4.3 Centroid Wavelength (λC) -- 2.4.4 Colorimetric Quantities Derived from the Spectral Radiance Distribution of the LED Light Source -- 2.4.4.1 Dominant Wavelength (λD) -- 2.4.4.2 Colorimetric Purity (pC) -- 2.5 Circadian Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation -- 2.5.1 The Human Circadian Clock -- References.

Chapter 3 LED Components - Principles of Radiation Generation and Packaging -- 3.1 Introduction to LED Technology -- 3.2 Basic Knowledge on Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 3.2.1 Injection Luminescence -- 3.2.2 Homo-Junction, Hetero-Junction, and Quantum Well -- 3.2.2.1 Homo-Junction -- 3.2.2.2 Hetero-Junction -- 3.2.2.3 Quantum Well -- 3.2.3 Recombination -- 3.2.3.1 Direct and Indirect Recombination -- 3.2.3.2 Radiative and Nonradiative Recombinations and Their Simple Theoretical Quantification -- 3.2.4 Efficiency -- 3.2.4.1 Internal Quantum Efficiency (ηi) -- 3.2.4.2 Injection Efficiency (ηinj) -- 3.2.4.3 Light Extraction Efficiency (ηextraction) -- 3.2.4.4 External Quantum Efficiency (ηext) -- 3.2.4.5 Radiant Efficiency (ηe, See Section 2.2.5, Eq. (2.13)) -- 3.2.4.6 Luminous Efficacy (ηv) -- 3.2.5 Semiconductor Material Systems - Efficiency, Possibilities, and Limits -- 3.2.5.1 Possible Semiconductor Systems -- 3.2.5.2 Semiconductor Systems for Amber-Red Semiconductor LEDs -- 3.2.5.3 Semiconductor Systems for UV-Blue-Green Semiconductor LEDs -- 3.2.5.4 The Green Efficiency Gap of Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 3.3 Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 3.3.1 Concepts of Matter Waves of de Broglie -- 3.3.2 The Physical Mechanism of Photon Emission -- 3.3.3 Theoretical Absolute Spectral Power Distribution of a Color Semiconductor LED -- 3.3.4 Characteristic Parameters of the LEDs Absolute Spectral Power Distribution -- 3.3.5 Role of the Input Forward Current -- 3.3.6 Summary -- 3.4 Phosphor Systems and White Phosphor-Converted LEDs -- 3.4.1 Introduction to Phosphors -- 3.4.2 Luminescence Mechanisms -- 3.4.3 Aluminum Garnets -- 3.4.4 Alkaline Earth Sulfides -- 3.4.5 Alkaline Earth Ortho-Silicates -- 3.4.6 Alkaline Earth Oxy-Ortho-Silicates -- 3.4.7 Nitride Phosphors -- 3.4.7.1 CASN -- 3.4.7.2 2-5-8-Nitrides -- 3.4.7.3 1-2-2-2 Oxynitrides -- 3.4.7.4 β-SiAlON.

3.4.8 Phosphor-Coating Methods -- 3.4.9 Challenges of Volumetric Dispensing Methods -- 3.4.10 Influence of Phosphor Concentration and Thickness on LED Spectra -- 3.5 Green and Red Phosphor-Converted LEDs -- 3.5.1 The Phosphor-Converted System -- 3.5.2 Chromaticity Considerations -- 3.5.3 Phosphor Mixtures for the White Phosphor-Converted LEDs -- 3.5.4 Colorimetric Characteristics of the Phosphor-Converted LEDs -- 3.6 Optimization of LED Chip-Packaging Technology -- 3.6.1 Efficiency Improvement for the LED Chip -- 3.6.2 Molding and Positioning of the Phosphor System -- 3.6.3 Substrate Technology - Integration Degree -- References -- Chapter 4 Measurement and Modeling of the LED Light Source -- 4.1 LED Radiometry, Photometry, and Colorimetry -- 4.1.1 Spatially Resolved Luminance and Color Measurement of LED Components -- 4.1.2 Integrating Sphere Based Spectral Radiant Flux and Luminous Flux Measurement -- 4.2 Thermal and Electric Behavior of Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.2.1 Temperature and Current Dependence of Color Semiconductor LED Spectra -- 4.2.1.1 Temperature Dependence of Color Semiconductor LED Spectra -- 4.2.1.2 Current Dependence of Color Semiconductor LED Spectra -- 4.2.2 Temperature and Current Dependence of Radiant Flux and Radiant Efficiency of Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.2.2.1 Temperature Dependence of Radiant Flux and Radiant Efficiency of Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.2.2.2 Current Dependence of Radiant Flux and Radiant Efficiency of Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.2.2.3 Conclusion -- 4.2.3 Temperature and Current Dependence of the Chromaticity Difference of Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.2.3.1 Temperature Dependence of the Chromaticity Difference of the Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.2.3.2 Current Dependence of Chromaticity Difference of the Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.3 Thermal and Electric Behavior of White Phosphor-Converted LEDs.

4.3.1 Temperature and Current Dependence of Warm White PC-LED Spectra -- 4.3.1.1 Temperature Dependence of Warm White PC-LED Spectra -- 4.3.1.2 Current Dependence of Warm White PC-LED Spectra -- 4.3.2 Current Limits for the Color Rendering Index, Luminous Efficacy, and White Point for Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.3.2.1 General Considerations -- 4.3.2.2 Comparison of Color Rendering Index and Luminous Efficacy -- 4.3.2.3 White Point of the Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.3.3 Temperature and Current Dependence of the Luminous Flux and Luminous Efficacy of Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.3.3.1 Temperature Dependence of the Luminous Flux and Luminous Efficacy of Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.3.3.2 Current Dependence of Luminous Flux and Luminous Efficacy of Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.3.4 Temperature and Current Dependence of the Chromaticity Difference of Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.3.4.1 Temperature Dependence of the Chromaticity Difference of Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.3.4.2 Current Dependence of the Chromaticity Difference of Warm White PC-LEDs -- 4.4 Consequences for LED Selection Under Real Operation Conditions -- 4.4.1 Chromaticity Differences Between the Operating Point and the Cold Binning Point -- 4.4.2 Chromaticity Difference Between the Operating Point and the Hot Binning Point -- 4.5 LED Electrical Model -- 4.5.1 Theoretical Approach for an Ideal Diode -- 4.5.2 A LED Experimental Electrical Model Based on the Circuit Technology -- 4.5.3 An Example for a Limited Electrical Model for LEDs -- 4.5.3.1 Limited Operating Range -- 4.5.3.2 Mathematical Description of the LEDs Forward Current in the Limited Operating Range -- 4.5.3.3 An Example for the Application of the Limited Electrical Model -- 4.5.3.4 Evaluation and Improvement of the Electrical Model -- 4.6 LED Spectral Model -- 4.6.1 Spectral Models of Color Semiconductor LEDs and White PC-LEDs -- 4.6.1.1 Mathematical Approach.

4.6.2 An Example for a Color Semiconductor LED Spectral Model -- 4.6.2.1 Experiments on Spectral Models for Color Semiconductor LEDs -- 4.6.3 An Example for a PC-LED Spectral Model -- 4.6.3.1 Experiments for the Spectral Models of White PC-LEDs -- 4.7 Thermal Relationships and Thermal LED Models -- 4.7.1 Thermal Relationships in LEDs -- 4.7.1.1 Thermal Structure of a Typical LED -- 4.7.1.2 A Typical Equivalent Thermal Circuit -- 4.7.1.3 External Thermal Resistance -- 4.7.2 One-Dimensional Thermal Models -- 4.7.2.1 The First Order Thermal Circuit -- 4.7.2.2 Second Order Thermal Circuit -- 4.7.2.3 The nth Order Thermal Circuit -- 4.7.2.4 The Transient Function and Its Weighting Function -- 4.7.2.5 Conclusions -- 4.8 Measurement Methods to Determine the Thermal Characteristics of LED Devices -- 4.8.1 Measurement Methods and Procedures -- 4.8.1.1 Selection of an Available Measurement Method -- 4.8.1.2 Description of the Cooling Measurement Procedure -- 4.8.2 Description of a Typical Measurement System and Its Calibration -- 4.8.2.1 Components and Structure of the Measurement System -- 4.8.2.2 Determination of Thermal Power and Calibration Factor for Several LEDs -- 4.8.3 Methods of Thermal Map Decoding -- 4.8.3.1 Decoding of the Thermal Map by the Method of the Structure Function -- 4.8.3.2 Thermal Map Decoding by the Euclidean Algorithm -- 4.9 Thermal and Optical Behavior of Blue LEDs, Silicon Systems, and Phosphor Systems -- 4.9.1 Selection of LEDs and Their Optical Behavior -- 4.9.2 Efficiency of the LEDs -- 4.9.3 Results of Thermal Decoding by the Structure Function Method -- 4.9.4 Results of Thermal Decoding by the Method of the Euclidean Algorithm -- 4.10 Aging Behavior of High-Power LED Components -- 4.10.1 Degradation and Failure Mechanisms of LED Components -- 4.10.2 Research on the Aging Behavior of High-Power-LEDs.

4.10.2.1 Change of Spectral Distribution and Chromaticity Coordinates.

Promoting the design, application and evaluation of visually and electrically effective LED light sources and luminaires for general indoor lighting as well as outdoor and vehicle lighting, this book combines the knowledge of LED lighting technology with human perceptual aspects for lighting scientists and engineers. After an introduction to the human visual system and current radiometry, photometry and color science, the basics of LED chip and phosphor technology are described followed by specific issues of LED radiometry and the optical, thermal and electric modeling of LEDs. This is supplemented by the relevant practical issues of pulsed LEDs, remote phosphor LEDs and the aging of LED light sources. Relevant human visual aspects closely related to LED technology are described in detail for the photopic and the mesopic range of vision, including color rendering, binning, whiteness, Circadian issues, as well as flicker perception, brightness, visual performance, conspicuity and disability glare. The topic of LED luminaires is discussed in a separate chapter, including retrofit LED lamps, LED-based road and street luminaires and LED luminaires for museum and school lighting. Specific sections are devoted to the modularity of LED luminaires, their aging and the planning and evaluation methods of new LED installations. The whole is rounded off by a summary and a look towards future developments.

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