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Intro -- Design of Multiphase Reactors -- Copyright -- Contents -- Foreword -- Preface -- Chapter 1 Evolution of the Chemical Industry and Importance of Multiphase Reactors -- 1.1 Evolution of Chemical Process Industries -- 1.2 Sustainable and Green Processing Requirements in the Modern Chemical Industry -- 1.3 Catalysis -- 1.3.1 Heterogeneous Catalysis -- 1.3.2 Homogeneous Catalysis -- 1.4 Parameters Concerning Catalyst Effectiveness in Industrial Operations -- 1.4.1 Chemoselectivity -- 1.4.2 Regioselectivity -- 1.4.3 Stereoselectivity -- 1.5 Importance of Advanced Instrumental Techniques in Understanding Catalytic Phenomena -- 1.6 Role of Nanotechnology in Catalysis -- 1.7 Click Chemistry -- 1.8 Role of Multiphase Reactors -- References -- Chapter 2 Multiphase Reactors: The Design and Scale-Up Problem -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 The Scale-Up Conundrum -- 2.3 Intrinsic Kinetics: Invariance with Respect to Type/Size of Multiphase Reactor -- 2.4 Transport Processes: Dependence on Type/Size of Multiphase Reactor -- 2.5 Prediction of the Rate-Controlling Step in the Industrial Reactor -- 2.6 Laboratory Methods for Discerning Intrinsic Kinetics of Multiphase Reactions -- 2.6.1 Two-Phase (Gas-Liquid) Reaction -- 2.6.2 Three-Phase (Gas-Liquid-Solid) Reactions with Solid Phase Acting as Catalyst -- Nomenclature -- References -- Chapter 3 Multiphase Reactors: Types and Criteria for Selection for a Given Application -- 3.1 Introduction to Simplified Design Philosophy -- 3.2 Classification of Multiphase Reactors -- 3.3 Criteria for Reactor Selection -- 3.3.1 Kinetics vis-à-vis Mass Transfer Rates -- 3.3.2 Flow Patterns of the Various Phases -- 3.3.3 Ability to Remove/Add Heat -- 3.3.4 Ability to Handle Solids -- 3.3.5 Operating Conditions (Pressure/Temperature) -- 3.3.6 Material of Construction.
3.4 Some Examples of Large-Scale Applications of Multiphase Reactors -- 3.4.1 Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis -- 3.4.2 Oxidation of p-Xylene to Purified Terephthalic Acid for Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) -- Nomenclature -- References -- Chapter 4 Turbulence: Fundamentals and Relevance to Multiphase Reactors -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Fluid Turbulence -- 4.2.1 Homogeneous Turbulence -- 4.2.2 Isotropic Turbulence -- 4.2.3 Eddy Size Distribution and Effect of Eddy Size on Transport Rates -- Nomenclature -- References -- Chapter 5 Principles of Similarity and Their Application for Scale-Up of Multiphase Reactors -- 5.1 Introduction to Principles of Similarity and a Historic Perspective -- 5.2 States of Similarity of Relevance to Chemical Process Equipments -- 5.2.1 Geometric Similarity -- 5.2.2 Mechanical Similarity -- 5.2.3 Thermal Similarity -- 5.2.4 Chemical Similarity -- 5.2.5 Physiological Similarity -- 5.2.6 Similarity in Electrochemical Systems -- 5.2.7 Similarity in Photocatalytic Reactors -- Nomenclature -- References -- Chapter 6 Mass Transfer in Multiphase Reactors: Some Theoretical Considerations -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 Purely Empirical Correlations Using Operating Parameters and Physical Properties -- 6.3 Correlations Based on Mechanical Similarity -- 6.3.1 Correlations Based on Dynamic Similarity -- 6.4 Correlations Based on Hydrodynamic/Turbulence Regime Similarity -- 6.4.1 The Slip Velocity Approach -- 6.4.2 Approach Based on Analogy between Momentum and Mass Transfer -- Nomenclature -- References -- Chapter 7A Stirred Tank Reactors for Chemical Reactions -- 7A.1 Introduction -- 7A.1.1 The Standard Stirred Tank -- 7A.2 Power Requirements of Different Impellers -- 7A.3 Hydrodynamic Regimes in Two-Phase (Gas-Liquid) Stirred Tank Reactors -- 7A.3.1 Constant Speed of Agitation -- 7A.3.2 Constant Gas Flow Rate.
7A.4 Hydrodynamic Regimes in Three-Phase (Gas-Liquid-Solid) Stirred Tank Reactors -- 7A.5 Gas Holdup in Stirred Tank Reactors -- 7A.5.1 Some Basic Considerations -- 7A.5.2 Correlations for Gas Holdup -- 7A.5.3 Relative Gas Dispersion (N/NCD) as a Correlating Parameter for Gas Holdup -- 7A.5.4 Correlations for NCD -- 7A.6 Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient in Stirred Tank Reactor -- 7A.7 Solid-Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient in Stirred Tank Reactor -- 7A.7.1 Solid Suspension in Stirred Tank Reactor -- 7A.7.2 Correlations for Solid-Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient -- 7A.8 Design of Stirred Tank Reactors with Internal Cooling Coils -- 7A.8.1 Gas Holdup -- 7A.8.2 Critical Speed for Complete Dispersion of Gas -- 7A.8.3 Critical Speed for Solid Suspension -- 7A.8.4 Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient -- 7A.8.5 Solid-Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient -- 7A.9 Stirred Tank Reactor with Internal Draft Tube -- 7A.10 Worked Example: Design of Stirred Reactor for Hydrogenation of Aniline to Cyclohexylamine (Capacity: 25,000 Metric Tonnes per Year) -- 7A.10.1 Elucidation of the Output -- Nomenclature -- References -- Chapter 7B Stirred Tank Reactors for Cell Culture Technology -- 7B.1 Introduction -- 7B.2 The Biopharmaceutical Process and Cell Culture Engineering -- 7B.2.1 Animal Cell Culture vis-à-vis Microbial Culture -- 7B.2.2 Major Improvements Related to Processing of Animal Cell Culture -- 7B.2.3 Reactors for Large-Scale Animal Cell Culture -- 7B.3 Types of Bioreactors -- 7B.3.1 Major Components of Stirred Bioreactor -- 7B.4 Modes of Operation of Bioreactors -- 7B.4.1 Batch Mode -- 7B.4.2 Fed-Batch or Semibatch Mode -- 7B.4.3 Continuous Mode (Perfusion) -- 7B.5 Cell Retention Techniques for Use in Continuous Operation in Suspended Cell Perfusion Processes -- 7B.5.1 Cell Retention Based on Size: Different Types of Filtration Techniques.
7B.5.2 Separation Based on Body Force Difference -- 7B.5.3 Acoustic Devices -- 7B.6 Types of Cells and Modes of Growth -- 7B.7 Growth Phases of Cells -- 7B.8 The Cell and Its Viability in Bioreactors -- 7B.8.1 Shear Sensitivity -- 7B.9 Hydrodynamics -- 7B.9.1 Mixing in Bioreactors -- 7B.10 Gas Dispersion -- 7B.10.1 Importance of Gas Dispersion -- 7B.10.2 Effect of Dissolved Carbon Dioxide on Bioprocess Rate -- 7B.10.3 Factors That Affect Gas Dispersion -- 7B.10.4 Estimation of NCD -- 7B.11 Solid Suspension -- 7B.11.1 Two-Phase (Solid-Liquid) Systems -- 7B.11.2 Three-Phase (Gas-Liquid-Solid) Systems -- 7B.12 Mass Transfer -- 7B.12.1 Fractional Gas Holdup (εG) -- 7B.12.2 Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer -- 7B.12.3 Liquid-Cell Mass Transfer -- 7B.13 Foaming in Cell Culture Systems: Effectson Hydrodynamics and Mass Transfer -- 7B.14 Heat Transfer in Stirred Bioreactors -- 7B.15 Worked Cell Culture Reactor Design Example -- 7B.15.1 Conventional Batch Stirred Reactor with Air Sparging for Microcarrier-Supported Cells: A Simple Design Methodology for Discerning the Rate-Controlling Step -- 7B.15.2 Reactor Using Membrane-Based Oxygen Transfer -- 7B.15.3 Heat Transfer Area Required -- 7B.16 Special Aspects of Stirred Bioreactor Design -- 7B.16.1 The Reactor Vessel -- 7B.16.2 Sterilizing System -- 7B.16.3 Measurement Probes -- 7B.16.4 Agitator Seals -- 7B.16.5 Gasket and O-Ring Materials -- 7B.16.6 Vent Gas System -- 7B.16.7 Cell Retention Systems in Perfusion Culture -- 7B.17 Concluding Remarks -- Nomenclature -- References -- Chapter 8 Venturi Loop Reactor -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Application Areas for the Venturi Loop Reactor -- 8.2.1 Two Phase (Gas-Liquid Reactions) -- 8.2.2 Three-Phase (Gas-Liquid-Solid-Catalyzed) Reactions -- 8.3 Advantages of the Venturi Loop Reactor: A Detailed Comparison -- 8.3.1 Relatively Very High Mass Transfer Rates.
8.3.2 Lower Reaction Pressure -- 8.3.3 Well-Mixed Liquid Phase -- 8.3.4 Efficient Temperature Control -- 8.3.5 Efficient Solid Suspension and Well-Mixed Solid (Catalyst) Phase -- 8.3.6 Suitability for Dead-End System -- 8.3.7 Excellent Draining/Cleaning Features -- 8.3.8 Easy Scale-Up -- 8.4 The Ejector-Based Liquid Jet Venturi Loop Reactor -- 8.4.1 Operational Features -- 8.4.2 Components and Their Functions -- 8.5 The Ejector-Diffuser System and Its Components -- 8.6 Hydrodynamics of Liquid Jet Ejector -- 8.6.1 Flow Regimes -- 8.6.2 Prediction of Rate of Gas Induction -- 8.7 Design of Venturi Loop Reactor -- 8.7.1 Mass Ratio of Secondary to Primary Fluid -- 8.7.2 Gas Holdup -- 8.7.3 Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer: Mass Transfer Coefficient (kLa) and Effective Interfacial Area (a) -- 8.8 Solid Suspension in Venturi Loop Reactor -- 8.9 Solid-Liquid Mass Transfer -- 8.10 Holding Vessel Size -- 8.11 Recommended Overall Configuration -- 8.12 Scale-Up of Venturi Loop Reactor -- 8.13 Worked Examples for Design of Venturi Loop Reactor: Hydrogenation of Aniline to Cyclohexylamine -- Nomenclature -- References -- Chapter 9 Gas-Inducing Reactors -- 9.1 Introduction and Application Areas of Gas-Inducing Reactors -- 9.1.1 Advantages -- 9.1.2 Drawbacks -- 9.2 Mechanism of Gas Induction -- 9.3 Classification of Gas-Inducing Impellers -- 9.3.1 1-1 Type Impellers -- 9.3.2 1-2 and 2-2 Type Impellers -- 9.4 Multiple-Impeller Systems Using 2-2 Type Impeller for Gas Induction -- 9.4.1 Critical Speed for Gas Induction -- 9.4.2 Rate of Gas Induction (QG) -- 9.4.3 Critical Speed for Gas Dispersion -- 9.4.4 Critical Speed for Solid Suspension -- 9.4.5 Operation of Gas-Inducing Reactor with Gas Sparging -- 9.4.6 Solid-Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient (KSL).
9.5 Worked Example: Design of Gas-Inducing System with Multiple Impellers for Hydrogenation of Aniline to Cyclohexylamine (Capacity: 25,000 Metric Tonnes per Year).
Details simple design methods for multiphase reactors in the chemical process industriesDesign of Multiphase Reactors is aimed at providing the process design engineer with simple yet theoretically sound procedures. The book deals with different types of multiphase reactors on an individual basis including two widely used and important reactors that have not received adequate attention particularly: the ventury loop reactor and stirred reactors for cell culture technology.For each reactor type the book discusses the basic theory, develops quantitative models for reactor design and operation and comments on the state of knowledge. After this treatment it proceeds to give illustrative reactor design procedures. The solved reactor design examples for industrially important applications are another attraction of this book besides the addition of the two important reactor types. Design of Multiphase Reactors features: Basic aspects of transport in multiphase reactors and the importance of relatively reliable and simple procedures for predicting mass transfer parameters Design and scale up aspects of several important types of multiphase reactors Illustrated examples through design methodologies presenting different reactors for reactions that are industrially important A simple spreadsheet packages rather than complex algorithms / programs for computational aid The approach used in this book is to develop reliable procedures for predicting mass transfer coefficients. The focus is on providing correlations that are independent of the geometric configuration and size of the reactor.Vishwas G. Pangarkar was Professor and head of the Chemical Engineering Department of the University Institute of Chemical Technology in Mumbai, India. He has been actively engaged as a consultant in the chemical industry since 1974 for both Indian and overseas
companies. He is the (co)author of three books and over 130 professional papers. He is the only Indian winner of both Herdillia and NOCIL Award of The Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers , which are for excellence in such diverse fields as basic research and industrial innovations.
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.