Scientific Method for Ecological Research. (Record no. 76100)

MARC details
000 -LEADER
fixed length control field 11214nam a22004933i 4500
001 - CONTROL NUMBER
control field EBC164740
003 - CONTROL NUMBER IDENTIFIER
control field MiAaPQ
005 - DATE AND TIME OF LATEST TRANSACTION
control field 20191126102900.0
006 - FIXED-LENGTH DATA ELEMENTS--ADDITIONAL MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS
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007 - PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION FIXED FIELD--GENERAL INFORMATION
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008 - FIXED-LENGTH DATA ELEMENTS--GENERAL INFORMATION
fixed length control field 191125s2000 xx o ||||0 eng d
020 ## - INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER
International Standard Book Number 9780511152474
Qualifying information (electronic bk.)
020 ## - INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER
Canceled/invalid ISBN 9780521660051
035 ## - SYSTEM CONTROL NUMBER
System control number (MiAaPQ)EBC164740
035 ## - SYSTEM CONTROL NUMBER
System control number (Au-PeEL)EBL164740
035 ## - SYSTEM CONTROL NUMBER
System control number (CaPaEBR)ebr2000908
035 ## - SYSTEM CONTROL NUMBER
System control number (CaONFJC)MIL42074
035 ## - SYSTEM CONTROL NUMBER
System control number (OCoLC)475873326
040 ## - CATALOGING SOURCE
Original cataloging agency MiAaPQ
Language of cataloging eng
Description conventions rda
-- pn
Transcribing agency MiAaPQ
Modifying agency MiAaPQ
050 #4 - LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CALL NUMBER
Classification number QH541.2 -- .F66 2000eb
082 0# - DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION NUMBER
Classification number 577/.07/2
100 1# - MAIN ENTRY--PERSONAL NAME
Personal name Ford, E. David.
9 (RLIN) 51358
245 10 - TITLE STATEMENT
Title Scientific Method for Ecological Research.
264 #1 - PRODUCTION, PUBLICATION, DISTRIBUTION, MANUFACTURE, AND COPYRIGHT NOTICE
Place of production, publication, distribution, manufacture Cambridge :
Name of producer, publisher, distributor, manufacturer Cambridge University Press,
Date of production, publication, distribution, manufacture, or copyright notice 2000.
264 #4 - PRODUCTION, PUBLICATION, DISTRIBUTION, MANUFACTURE, AND COPYRIGHT NOTICE
Date of production, publication, distribution, manufacture, or copyright notice ©2000.
300 ## - PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
Extent 1 online resource (586 pages)
336 ## - CONTENT TYPE
Content type term text
Content type code txt
Source rdacontent
337 ## - MEDIA TYPE
Media type term computer
Media type code c
Source rdamedia
338 ## - CARRIER TYPE
Carrier type term online resource
Carrier type code cr
Source rdacarrier
505 0# - FORMATTED CONTENTS NOTE
Formatted contents note Cover -- Half-title -- Title -- Copyright -- Dedication -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- 1 Component processes of ecological research -- Summary -- SECTION I -- SECTION II -- SECTION III -- SECTION IV -- 1.1 Questions about the process of scientific research -- 1.2 Scientific methodology -- METHODOLOGY -- 1.3 Distinction between progress and process in scientific research -- 1.4 Section I: Developing an analytical framework -- 1.5 Section II: Making a synthesis for scientific inference -- 1.6 Section III: Working in the research community -- 1.7 Section IV: Defining a methodology for ecological research -- 1.8 Synopsis of methodological problems facing a new researcher in ecology -- 1.9 How to use this book to develop your research skills -- 1.10 Further reading -- Introduction to Section I: Developing an analytical framework -- SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS -- 1. Knowledge exists in three states -- 2. Whole theories evolve as investigations proceed -- 3. Explicit and careful definition must be made of concepts -- 4. Assessing postulates is the business of science, but there may be no definitive test -- 5.Measurement is essential in science, but there may be no absolute measurement of an ecological quantity or condition -- 6. No single technique of investigation - whether experiment, survey, field descriptions, or analysis of patterns in… -- 7. Different ecologists have different philosophies about what should be studied and how to study it -- 2 Five processes of research planning -- Summary -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Process 1: Defining a research question -- 2.2.1 Origins and types of research questions -- 1. Interest in observed natural phenomena -- 2. Application or test of a theory -- 3. Resolution of a discrepancy between theory and observation -- 4. Applying a new technique of measurement or method of data analysis.
505 8# - FORMATTED CONTENTS NOTE
Formatted contents note 2.2.2 Analysis of questions -- A.Transforming assumptions and questions into propositions -- B. Reviewing propositions in relation to the scientific literature -- C. Ordering propositions into those supported by the literature or direct observation, the axioms, and those that must be… -- 2.3 Process 2: Applying creativity to develop new research ideas -- 2.4 Process 3: Ensuring the proposed research has relevance to prior scientific knowledge -- 1. Understanding the publication system -- 2. Reading a scientific paper for method rather than content -- 3. Appreciating the tension between general theory and on-the-ground research -- 2.5 Process 4: Ensuring the proposed research is technically feasible and can be completed with available resources -- 2.6 Process 5: Determining how conclusions can be drawn -- 2.6.1 Developing a data statement: An example -- Data statement: Part One -- Data statement: Part Two -- Data statement: Part Three -- 2.6.2 Using statistics to illuminate the problem, not support a position -- 2.7 Further reading -- 3 Conceptual and propositional analysis for defining research problems -- Summary -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Constituents and properties of theories -- SCIENTIFIC METHOD -- OBJECTIVE KNOWLEDGE -- THEORY -- CONCEPT -- PROPOSITION -- AXIOM -- OVER-ARCHING AXIOM -- POSTULATE -- OVER-ARCHING POSTULATE -- LAW -- CODIFIED KNOWLEDGE -- UNCODIFIED KNOWLEDGE -- DATA STATEMENT -- A data statement -- HYPOTHESIS -- 3.3 Conceptual and propositional analysis -- 3.3.1 Phase One: Identifying the principal issues -- 3.3.2 Phase Two: Classifying concepts according to their status in the proggress of research -- CONCEPT FROM RESEARCH -- CONCEPT BY IMAGINATION -- CONCEPT BY MEASUREMENT -- CONCEPT BY INTUITION -- 3.3.3 Phase Three: Examining the complete research procedure -- AXIOMS -- POSTULATES -- DATA STATEMENTS.
505 8# - FORMATTED CONTENTS NOTE
Formatted contents note 3.4 Representing theories as networks -- 3.5 What can be gained from a conceptual and propositional analysis? -- 3.5.1 Deciding whether you can assume something or must investigate it -- 3.5.2 Understanding logical relationships between different pieces of knowledge -- 3.5.3 Assessing how complete a theory is -- 3.5.4 Knowing when to start practical investigation -- 3.6 Conclusion -- 3.7 Further reading -- 4 Development of a research plan -- Summary -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Process 1: Defining a research question -- 4.2.1 The first description -- 4.2.2 Initial development of a theory for the problem -- HOLDING CONCEPT -- 4.2.3 First definitions -- 4.2.4 First consideration of Process 4: Ensuring the proposed research is technically feasible and can be completed with… -- 4.2.5 First consideration of Process 2: Applying creativity to develop new research ideas -- 4.2.6 Continuation of Process 1: Defining a research question -- 4.3 Process 4: Ensuring the proposed research is technically feasible and can be completed with available resources -- 4.4 Process 3: Ensuring the proposed research has relevance to prior scientific knowledge -- 4.5 Process 2: Applying creativity to develop new research ideas -- 4.6 Process 5: Determining how conclusions can be drawn -- Data statement: Part One -- Data statement: Part Two -- Data statement: Part Three -- Scientific inference -- 4.7 Steel's comments on the planning process after completing her Master's thesis -- 4.8 Further reading -- 5 How theories develop and how to use them -- Summary -- 5.1 Introduction -- 1. Theories contain generalizations -- 2. Theories contain questions -- 3. Theories change continuously -- 5.2 Development of a theory from a simple postulate: Late-Quaternary vegetation change in central Alaska -- 5.2.1 Stage 1: Rejecting a simple postulate.
505 8# - FORMATTED CONTENTS NOTE
Formatted contents note 5.2.2 Stage 2: Exploring for spatial and temporal changes -- 5.2.3 Stage 3: Introducing axioms from tree ecology -- Axioms of species distribution -- Axioms of species environmental preferences -- 5.2.4 Stage 4: Increasing the precision of the theory -- 5.2.5 Stage 5: Working towards explanations that are coherent with meteorological theories -- 5.2.6 Assessment of theory development -- 5.3 Practical application of a theory: Hybridization in fish species -- 5.4 Development, properties, and use of ecological theories -- PROGRESSIVE THEORY DEVELOPMENT -- REGRESSIVE THEORY DEVELOPMENT -- 5.5 Further reading -- 6 The art of measurement and experiment -- Summary -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 Principles of measurement for new concepts -- PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENT FOR NEW CONCEPTS -- 6.3 Experimental analysis of ecological systems -- EXPERIMENT -- SYSTEM -- CLOSED SYSTEM -- OPEN SYSTEM -- EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS -- RESPONSE-LEVEL EXPERIMENT -- 6.4 Planning an analytical experiment: An example - control of photosynthesis rate of Pinus strobus trees -- 6.4.1 Results from an improved measurement technique -- 6.4.2 Observing an anomaly -- 6.4.3 Making a conceptual analysis of the problem -- 6.4.4 Constructing multiple postulates -- 6.4.5 Choosing a postulate to study -- BOLD POSTULATE -- FALSIFICATION -- 6.4.6 Defining the experimental conditions -- Data statement: Part One. Define the scientific procedure to be used in investigating the postulate -- 6.4.7 Developing a measurement -- Data statement: Part Two. Specify the measurement for each concept of the postulate -- 6.4.8 Designing treatment application, replication, and controls -- Data statement: Part Three. Specifies the requirements of the data for any statistical test to be applied -- EXPERIMENTAL UNIT -- MEASUREMENT UNIT -- TREATMENT -- REPLICATE -- CONTROLLED ANALYTICAL EXPERIMENT.
505 8# - FORMATTED CONTENTS NOTE
Formatted contents note STRATIFICATION -- PSEUDOREPLICATION -- 1. Control against ambient variation -- CONTROL PROCEDURE -- 2. Control treatments to estimate non-treatment effects of the experimental procedure -- TREATMENT CONTROL -- 6.4.9 Investigating ancillary processes to aid interpretation and assessment -- 6.5 Whole-system analytical experiments -- SYNTHETIC CONSTRUCTION -- 6.6 Discussion -- 6.7 Further reading -- 7 Methods of reasoning in research -- Summary -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 Principles of propositional logic -- DEDUCATION -- INDUCTION -- 7.3 The use of propositional logic in ecological research -- 7.4 The hypothetico-deductive method and use of falsification in scientific reasoning -- HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE METHOD -- 7.5 An exercise in choosing between postulates expected to be true and postulates expected to be false -- 7.6 How to decide whether to attempt confirmation or falsification -- 7.7 Using contrasts -- CONTRASTIVE QUESTION -- 7.8 Causality -- CAUSATION -- CAUSAL REASONS IN ECOLOGY -- ORGANIZATIONAL REASONS IN ECOLOGY -- DIFFERENCE CONDITION FOR CONTRASTS -- 7.9 A strategy for constructing theory using multiple working postulates -- 7.10 Discussion -- 7.11 Further reading -- 8 Assessment of postulates -- Summary -- 8.1 Introduction -- CONFOUNDING -- BIAS -- STATISTICAL INFERENCE -- 8.2 Refining postulates using exploratory analysis -- EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS -- 8.3 Developing a scientific procedure and set of measurements -- CONFIDENCE IN THE TEST OF STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS -- POWER OF TEST -- 8.4 Satisfying the logic required for statistical inference -- 8.4.1 Constructing and assessing a statistical hypothesis -- 8.4.2 Completing the data statement -- 8.5 Discussion -- 8.6 Further reading -- 9 Individual philosophies and their methods -- Summary -- 9.1 Introduction -- SCIENTIFIC REALISM -- METAPHYSICS -- 9.2 Initial assumptions -- 9.2.1 Teleology.
505 8# - FORMATTED CONTENTS NOTE
Formatted contents note TELEOLOGY.
520 ## - SUMMARY, ETC.
Summary, etc. Provides a framework for understanding methodological issues and assists with the effective definition and planning of research.
588 ## - SOURCE OF DESCRIPTION NOTE
Source of description note Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.
590 ## - LOCAL NOTE (RLIN)
Local note Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.
650 #0 - SUBJECT ADDED ENTRY--TOPICAL TERM
Topical term or geographic name entry element Ecology -- Research -- Methodology.;Science -- Methodology.
9 (RLIN) 51359
655 #4 - INDEX TERM--GENRE/FORM
Genre/form data or focus term Electronic books.
9 (RLIN) 51360
776 08 - ADDITIONAL PHYSICAL FORM ENTRY
Relationship information Print version:
Main entry heading Ford, E. David
Title Scientific Method for Ecological Research
Place, publisher, and date of publication Cambridge : Cambridge University Press,c2000
International Standard Book Number 9780521660051
797 2# - LOCAL ADDED ENTRY--CORPORATE NAME (RLIN)
Corporate name or jurisdiction name as entry element ProQuest (Firm)
856 40 - ELECTRONIC LOCATION AND ACCESS
Uniform Resource Identifier <a href="https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/thebc/detail.action?docID=164740">https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/thebc/detail.action?docID=164740</a>
Public note Click to View
887 ## - NON-MARC INFORMATION FIELD
Content of non-MARC field EBK
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