Soil Strength and Slope Stability.

Duncan, J. Michael.

Soil Strength and Slope Stability. - 2nd ed. - 1 online resource (334 pages)

Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Contents -- Foreword -- Preface -- Chapter 1 Introduction -- Summary -- Chapter 2 Examples and Causes of Slope Failures -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Examples of Slope Failure -- 2.2.1 The London Road and Highway 24 Landslides -- 2.2.2 The Landslide at Tuve, Sweden -- 2.2.3 The National Highway No. 3 Landslide, Taiwan -- 2.2.4 Slope Failures in Highway, Dam, and Levee Embankments -- 2.3 The Olmsted Landslide -- 2.4 Panama Canal Landslides -- 2.5 The Rio Mantaro Landslide -- 2.6 Kettleman Hills Landfill Failure -- 2.7 Causes of Slope Failure -- 2.7.1 Decrease in Shear Strength -- 2.7.2 Increase in Shear Stress -- 2.8 Summary -- Chapter 3 Soil Mechanics Principles -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.1.1 Drained and Undrained Conditions -- 3.2 Total and Effective Stresses -- 3.3 Drained and Undrained Shear Strengths -- 3.3.1 Sources of Shear Strength -- 3.3.2 Drained Strength -- 3.3.3 Volume Changes During Drained Shear -- 3.3.4 Pore Pressure Changes During Undrained Shear -- 3.3.5 Undrained Strength -- 3.3.6 Strength Envelopes -- 3.4 Basic Requirements for Slope Stability Analyses -- 3.4.1 Analyses of Drained Conditions -- 3.4.2 Analyses of Undrained Conditions -- 3.4.3 How Long Does Drainage Take? -- 3.4.4 Short-Term Analyses -- 3.4.5 Long-Term Analyses -- 3.4.6 Progressive Failure -- Chapter 4 Stability Conditions for Analysis -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 End-of-Construction Stability -- 4.3 Long-Term Stability -- 4.4 Rapid (Sudden) Drawdown -- 4.5 Earthquake -- 4.6 Partial Consolidation and Staged Construction -- 4.7 Other Loading Conditions -- 4.7.1 Rapid Flood Loading -- 4.7.2 Surcharge Loading -- 4.7.3 Partial Submergence and Intermediate Water Levels -- 4.8 Analysis Cases for Earth and Rockfill Dams -- Chapter 5 Shear Strength -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Behavior of Granular Materials-Sand, Gravel, and Rockfill. 5.2.1 Effects of Confining Pressure -- 5.2.2 Effects of Density -- 5.2.3 Effects of Gradation -- 5.2.4 Plane Strain Effects -- 5.2.5 Triaxial Tests on Granular Materials -- 5.2.6 Field Control of Fill Density -- 5.2.7 Strength Correlations for Granular Materials -- 5.2.8 Typical Values of Ф' for Sands, Gravels, and Rockfills -- 5.3 Silts -- 5.3.1 Behavior of Silts -- 5.3.2 In Situ Testing of Low-Plasticity Silts -- 5.3.3 Effects of Sample Disturbance -- 5.3.5 Effects of Cavitation During Strength Tests -- 5.3.6 Rate of Drainage of Silt Deposits -- 5.3.7 Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Tests on Low-Plasticity Silts -- 5.3.8 Consolidated-Undrained Triaxial Tests on Low-Plasticity Silts -- 5.3.9 Effective Stress Strength Envelopes -- 5.3.10 Strengths of Compacted Silts -- 5.3.11 Undrained Strength Ratios for Silts -- 5.3.12 Typical Values of Φ' for Silts -- 5.4 Clays -- 5.4.1 Factors Affecting Clay Strength -- 5.4.2 Methods of Evaluating Undrained Strengths of Intact Clays -- 5.4.3 Comparison of Laboratory and Field Methods for Undrained Strength Assessment -- 5.4.4 Use of Correlations for Estimating Undrained Shear Strength -- 5.4.5 Typical Peak Effective Stress Friction Angles for Intact Clays -- 5.4.6 Stiff-Fissured Clays -- 5.4.7 Compacted Clays -- 5.5 Municipal Solid Waste -- Chapter 6 Mechanics of Limit Equilibrium Procedures -- 6.1 Definition of the Factor of Safety -- 6.2 Equilibrium Conditions -- 6.3 Single Free-Body Procedures -- 6.3.1 Infinite Slope Procedure -- 6.3.2 Logarithmic Spiral Procedure -- 6.3.3 Swedish Circle (Φ=O) Method -- 6.4 Procedures of Slices: General -- 6.5 Procedures of Slices: Circular Slip Surfaces -- 6.5.1 Ordinary Method of Slices -- 6.5.2 Simplified Bishop Procedure -- 6.5.3 Inclusion of Additional Known Forces -- 6.5.4 Complete Bishop procedure -- 6.6 Procedures of Slices: Noncircular Slip Surfaces. 6.6.1 Force Equilibrium (Only) Procedures -- 6.6.2 Procedures That Satisfy All Conditions of Equilibrium -- 6.7 Procedures of Slices: Assumptions, Equilibrium Equations, and Unknowns -- 6.8 Procedures of Slices: Representation of Interslice Forces (Side Forces) -- 6.8.1 Soil and Water Forces -- 6.8.2 Soil-Water and Reinforcement Forces -- 6.9 Computations with Anisotropic Shear Strengths -- 6.10 Computations with Curved Strength Envelopes -- 6.11 Finite Element Analysis of Slopes -- 6.12 Alternative Definitions of the Factor of Safety -- 6.12.1 Factor of Safety for Load -- 6.12.2 Factor of Safety for Moments -- 6.13 Pore Water Pressure Representation -- 6.13.1 Flow Net Solutions -- 6.13.2 Numerical Solutions -- 6.13.3 Interpolation Schemes -- 6.13.4 Phreatic Surface -- 6.13.5 Piezometric Line -- 6.13.6 Examples -- 6.13.7 Summary -- Chapter 7 Methods of Analyzing Slope Stability -- 7.1 Simple Methods of Analysis -- 7.1.1 Vertical Slope in Cohesive Soil -- 7.2 Slope Stability Charts -- 7.3 Spreadsheet Software -- 7.4 Finite Element Analyses of Slope Stability -- 7.5 Computer Programs for Limit Equilibrium Analyses -- 7.5.1 Types of Computer Programs -- 7.5.2 Automatic Searches for Critical Slip Surface -- 7.5.3 Restricting the Critical Slip Surfaces of Interest -- 7.6 Verification of Results of Analyses -- 7.7 Examples for Verification of Stability Computations -- 7.7.1 Example 1: Unbraced Vertical Cut in Clay -- 7.7.2 Example 2: Underwater Slope in Soft Clay -- 7.7.3 Example 3: Excavated Slope in Stiff-Fissured Clay -- 7.7.4 Example 4: Cohesionless Slope on Saturated Clay Foundation -- 7.7.5 Example 5: Oroville Dam-Analysis with a Curved Strength Envelope -- 7.7.7 Example 7: Homogeneous Earth Dam with Steady-State Seepage -- 7.7.8 Example 8: Earth Dam with Thick Core-Steady-State Seepage -- Chapter 8 Reinforced Slopes and Embankments. 8.1 Limit Equilibrium Analyses with Reinforcing Forces -- 8.2 Factors of Safety for Reinforcing Forces and Soil Strengths -- 8.3 Types of Reinforcement -- 8.4 Reinforcement Forces -- 8.4.1 Criterion 1: Creep, Installation Damage, and Deterioration in Properties over Time -- 8.4.2 Criterion 2: Pullout Resistance -- 8.5 Allowable Reinforcement Forces and Factors of Safety -- 8.6 Orientation of Reinforcement Forces -- 8.7 Reinforced Slopes on Firm Foundations -- 8.8 Embankments on Weak Foundations -- Chapter 9 Analyses for Rapid Drawdown -- 9.1 Drawdown during and at the End of Construction -- 9.2 Drawdown for Long-Term Conditions -- 9.2.1 Effective Stress Methods -- 9.2.2 Total Stress Methods -- 9.3 Partial Drainage -- 9.4 Shear-Induced Pore Pressure Changes -- Chapter 10 Seismic Slope Stability -- 10.1 Analysis Procedures -- 10.1.1 Detailed, Comprehensive Analyses -- 10.1.2 Pseudostatic Analyses -- 10.1.3 Sliding Block Analyses -- 10.2 Pseudostatic Screening Analyses -- 10.3 Determining Peak Accelerations -- 10.4 Shear Strength for Pseudostatic Analyses -- 10.4.1 Earthquakes Immediately after Construction -- 10.4.2 Earthquakes after the Slope Has Reached Consolidated Equilibrium -- 10.4.3 Effects of Rapid Load Application -- 10.5 Postearthquake Stability Analyses -- 10.5.1 Step 1. Determine Whether or Not Liquefaction Will Occur -- 10.5.2 Step 2. Estimate Reduced Undrained Shear Strengths -- 10.5.3 Step 3. Compute Slope Stability -- Chapter 11 Analyses of Embankments with Partial Consolidation of Weak Foundations -- 11.1 Consolidation During Construction -- 11.2 Analyses of Stability with Partial Consolidation -- 11.2.1 Effective Stress Approach -- 11.2.2 Total Stress Approach -- 11.3 Observed Behavior of an Embankment Constructed in Stages -- 11.4 Discussion -- 11.4.1 Difficulties in Estimating Pore Pressures. 11.4.2 Difficulties in Consolidation Analyses -- 11.4.3 Difficulties in Estimating Undrained Shear Strengths -- 11.4.4 Intrinsic Difference in Effective Stress and Total Stress Factors of Safety -- 11.4.5 Instrumentation for Staged Construction -- 11.4.6 Need for Additional Case Histories -- Chapter 12 Analyses to Back-Calculate Strengths -- 12.1 Back-Calculating Average Shear Strength -- 12.2 Back-Calculating Shear Strength Parameters Based on Slip Surface Geometry -- 12.3 Examples of Back-Analyses of Failed Slopes -- 12.3.1 Example 1: Hypothetical Embankment on Saturated Clay Foundation -- 12.3.2 Example 2: Natural Slope in Shale -- 12.3.3 Example 3: Victor Braunig Dam Embankment -- 12.3.4 Example 4: High-PI Clay Embankment in Texas -- 12.3.5 Example 5: Kettleman Hills Landfill Failure -- 12.3.6 Example 6: Development of the Grading Plan for the Tangguh, Indonesia LNG Plant Site -- 12.3.7 Summary -- 12.4 Practical Problems and Limitation of Back-Analyses -- 12.4.1 Progressive Failure -- 12.4.2 Decreasing Strengths with Time -- 12.4.3 Complex Shear Strength Patterns -- 12.5 Other Uncertainties -- Chapter 13 Factors of Safety and Reliability -- 13.1 Definitions of Factor of Safety -- 13.1.1 Alternative Definitions of F -- 13.2 Factor of Safety Criteria -- 13.2.1 Importance of Uncertainties and Consequences of Failure -- 13.2.2 Corps of Engineers' Criteria for Factors of Safety -- 13.3 Reliability and Probability of Failure -- 13.4 Standard Deviations and Coefficients of Variation -- 13.4.1 Statistical Estimates -- 13.4.2 Estimates Based on Published Values -- 13.4.3 The 3σ Rule -- 13.4.4 The Nσ Rule -- 13.4.5 The Graphical Nσ Rule -- 13.5 Estimating Reliability and Probability of Failure -- 13.5.1 The Taylor Series Method -- 13.5.2 Computing Probability of Failure Using the Taylor Series Method -- 13.5.3 Reliability Index. 13.5.4 Interpretation of Probability of Failure.

The definitive guide to the critical issue of slope stability and safety Soil Strength and Slope Stability, Second Edition presents the latest thinking and techniques in the assessment of natural and man-made slopes, and the factors that cause them to survive or crumble. Using clear, concise language and practical examples, the book explains the practical aspects of geotechnical engineering as applied to slopes and embankments. The new second edition includes a thorough discussion on the use of analysis software, providing the background to understand what the software is doing, along with several methods of manual analysis that allow readers to verify software results. The book also includes a new case study about Hurricane Katrina failures at 17th Street and London Avenue Canal, plus additional case studies that frame the principles and techniques described. Slope stability is a critical element of geotechnical engineering, involved in virtually every civil engineering project, especially highway development. Soil Strength and Slope Stability fills the gap in industry literature by providing practical information on the subject without including extraneous theory that may distract from the application. This balanced approach provides clear guidance for professionals in the field, while remaining comprehensive enough for use as a graduate-level text. Topics include: Mechanics of soil and limit equilibrium procedures Analyzing slope stability, rapid drawdown, and partial consolidation Safety, reliability, and stability analyses Reinforced slopes, stabilization, and repair The book also describes examples and causes of slope failure and stability conditions for analysis, and includes an appendix of slope stability charts. Given how vital slope stability is to public safety, a comprehensive resource for analysis and practical action is a valuable tool. Soil Strength and Slope Stability is the definitive guide to the subject, proving useful both in the classroom and in the field.

9781118917961


Slopes (Soil mechanics).


Electronic books.

TA710 -- .D868 2014eb

624.151363