Understanding and Conducting Research in the Health Sciences.

Cunningham, Christopher J. L.

Understanding and Conducting Research in the Health Sciences. - 1st ed. - 1 online resource (539 pages)

Cover -- Title page -- Copyright page -- Dedication -- Contents -- Preface -- Philosophy for Writing This Book -- Order of Chapters -- Acknowledgments -- Part One: Overview of the Research Process -- Chapter 1: Behavioral and Social Research in the Health Sciences -- Introduction -- Why Is Understanding Research Methods So Important? -- The Role of Behavioral and Social Science -- The Scientific Method -- Brief History of Scientific Reasoning -- Idols of the Tribe -- Idols of the Cave -- Idols of the Marketplace -- Idols of the Theater -- Bacon's Legacy -- Other Important Historical Figures -- Assumptions of Science -- Behavior Is Determined -- We Can Measure the Critical Variables -- Requirements for Scientific Research -- Empirical Analysis -- Public Verification -- Systematic Observation -- Control of the Environment -- Rational Explanation -- Parsimonious Explanation -- Tentative Explanations -- Chapter Summary -- Knowledge Check -- Chapter Glossary for Review -- References -- Chapter 2: Ethics and Research -- Introduction -- What is Ethics? -- Moral Principles Address the Well-Being of Others -- Moral Principles Transcend Other Standards, Including Self-Interest -- Moral Principles Are Constants and Universals -- Moral Principles Are Impartial -- Ethics and Ethical Codes -- Approaches to Ethical Analysis -- The Principle of Utilitarianism -- Disadvantages of Utilitarianism -- Advantages of Utilitarianism -- The Principle of Rights -- Disadvantages of Principle of Rights -- Advantages of Principle of Rights -- Making Ethical Decisions -- Ethical Health Sciences Research -- Components of an Ethical Research Plan -- Competence, Accuracy, and Validity -- Voluntary Informed Consent -- Informed Consent and Minors -- Filming or Recording Behavior -- When No Informed Consent Is Needed -- Deception in Research -- Confidentiality. Research in Action: Ethical Dilemmas -- Informed Consent -- Knowledge Check -- Long-Term Research Project -- Knowledge Check -- Historical Research -- Knowledge Check -- Trauma Interview -- Knowledge Check -- Chapter Summary -- Chapter Glossary for Review -- References -- Chapter 3: The Foundations of Research -- Introduction -- The Hypothesis in Research -- Hypotheses Come from Theory or Previous Research -- Hypotheses Direct Our Observations -- Hypotheses Describe the Relationships among Variables -- Hypotheses Connect Research to Populations -- Types of Hypotheses -- Estimation of Population Characteristics -- Correlation between Two Variables -- Difference among Two or More Populations -- Cause and Effect -- Knowledge Check -- Measurement -- Operational Definition -- Measurement Scale -- Nominal Scale -- Ordinal Scale -- Interval and Ratio Scales -- Reliability of Measurement -- Determining Reliability -- Validity of Measurement -- Determining Validity -- Populations and Samples -- Role of Random Sampling in Research -- When Random Sampling Is Essential -- When Random Sampling Is Not Essential -- Research in Action: Credit or Cash? -- Knowledge Check -- Chapter Summary -- Chapter Glossary for Review -- References -- Chapter 4: An Overview of Empirical Methods -- Introduction -- Internal, Statistical, and External Validity -- Internal Validity -- Threats to Internal Validity: Unintended Sequence of Events -- Threats to Internal Validity: Nonequivalent Groups -- Threats to Internal Validity: Measurement Error -- Threats to Internal Validity: Ambiguity of Cause and Effect -- Statistical Conclusion Validity -- Threats to Statistical Conclusion Validity -- External Validity -- Threats to External Validity -- Survey of Empirical Methods -- True Experiments -- Intact Group Designs and Quasi-Experimental Studies -- Surveys -- Correlational Studies. Interviews and Case Studies -- Meta-Analysis -- Computers and Statistics -- Garbage In-Garbage Out -- Data Issues -- Selecting the Right Statistical Test -- Statistical Fishing Expeditions -- Research in Action -- Knowledge Check -- Chapter Summary -- Chapter Glossary for Review -- References -- Part Two: Nuts and Bolts of Research -- Chapter 5: Writing the Research Report -- Introduction -- What Do Readers Appreciate in Good Writing? -- Elements of Style -- Conveying What Is Necessary -- Writing for an Audience -- Value-Free Descriptions of Others -- Special Grammatical Issues -- Active versus Passive Voice -- Past and Present Tense -- Proper Use of Pronouns -- Who versus That -- Vague Pronouns -- Commonly Misused Words -- Academic Integrity -- Citations of Sources in the Text -- Additional Comments on Quotations -- Parts of the Research Report -- Title Page -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Method Details -- Participants -- Materials, Measures, and Manipulations -- Design and Procedure -- Results Section -- Reporting Statistics -- Figures and Graphs -- Tables -- Discussion Section -- Reference Section -- Proofreading -- Computer Programs -- Chapter Summary -- References -- Chapter 6: Reviewing the Literature -- Introduction -- Bibliographic Research -- Tertiary Bibliographic Sources -- Secondary Bibliographic Sources -- Primary Bibliographic Sources -- Peer Review -- The Internet as a Source -- Click, Check, and Double-Check -- Developing a Search Strategy -- Find a Topic That Interests You -- Read Tertiary and Secondary Sources -- Use Specialized Terms -- Use Researchers' Names -- Review Notable Experiments -- Talk to Your Instructors -- Searching the Literature: The Library -- Ask the Library Staff -- Utilize Search Tools -- Search the Online Catalog -- Leverage Key Databases -- Try a Thesaurus -- Pay Attention to All Fields. Consider Practical Matters -- Selecting Articles -- Research in Action: Does Listening to Mozart Make You Smarter? -- Knowledge Check -- Knowledge Check -- Knowledge Check -- Knowledge Check -- Statistical Inference and Hypothesis Testing -- State the Null and Alternative Hypotheses -- Identify the Appropriate Statistical Test -- Chapter Summary -- Chapter Glossary for Review -- References -- Chapter 7: Sampling -- Introduction -- The Nature of Samples -- Scientific Samples versus Anecdotal Evidence -- Overview of Probability Sampling -- Populations and Samples -- Characteristics of Probability Sampling -- Probability Sampling Methods -- Simple Random Sampling -- Sequential Sampling -- Stratified Sampling -- Cluster Sampling -- Nonprobability Sampling -- Convenience Sampling -- Snowball Sampling -- Knowledge Check -- Central Limit Theorem -- Shape of the Sampling Distribution -- Mean of the Sampling Distribution: μM = μ -- Standard Error of the Mean (SEM): σM = σ/n -- Applications of the Central Limit Theorem -- Confidence Interval -- Confidence Interval for Proportions -- Confidence Interval for Means -- Interpreting the Confidence Interval -- Factors That Affect SEM -- Sources of Bias and Error: A Reprise -- Target Population -- Sampling Population -- Sampling Distribution -- Individual Sample -- Total Error -- Inferences from the Sample to the Population -- Research in Action: Sampling Matters -- Knowledge Check -- Chapter Summary -- Chapter Glossary for Review -- References -- Chapter 8: Assessments, Surveys, and Objective Measurement -- Introduction -- Purpose of Measurement -- Caveat Assessor -- Developing a Measurement Scale and Data Collection Strategy -- What Questions Are You Trying to Answer? -- What Is the Most Convenient Method for Producing the Data? -- What Is the Most Accurate Measurement Technique?. Interviews, Questionnaires, and Surveys -- Personal Interviews -- Potential Limitations of Interviews -- Surveys -- Use a Captive Audience -- Use Behavioral Tendencies to Your Advantage -- Question-Response Formats -- Closed-Response Questions -- Nominal Category Response -- Forced Choice Alternatives -- Numerical Response Format -- Guttman Format -- Open-Ended Questions -- Knowledge Check -- Writing Good Survey Items -- Ask Single Questions or Make Single Statements -- Ask Specific Questions and Avoid Vague Terms -- Write Neutral Statements and Avoid a Biased Tone -- Ask Questions That Do Not Embarrass or Anger the Participant -- Use Simple Words and Concepts -- Ask Questions That the Respondent Can Easily Answer -- Recognize That One Question May Not Be Enough -- Consider the Influence of Question Order -- Word Questions to Reduce the Risk of a Response Set -- Avoid Questions and Statements That Have Obviously Correct Answers -- Resources for Tests and Measurements -- Determining the Sample Size for a Survey -- Small Populations -- Observation -- What to Observe -- Strategies for Collecting Quantitative Observational Data -- Frequency Recording -- Duration Recording -- Interval Recording -- Special Considerations for Observational Research -- Coefficient Kappa -- Improving Interrater Reliability -- Participant Observation Research -- Research in Action: Analysis of Assaults -- Knowledge Check -- Chapter Summary -- Chapter Glossary for Review -- References -- Chapter 9: A Model for Research Design -- Introduction -- A Model for Research Design -- Purpose of Research -- Design of Research -- Selection of Participants -- Volunteer Participants -- Preparing the Participant for the Study -- Recording and Analyzing the Results -- What is the Independent Variable? -- What Type of Independent Variable? -- Subject versus Manipulated. Between-Subjects versus Within-Subjects Variables.

A comprehensive introduction to behavioral and social science research methods in the health sciences Understanding and Conducting Research in the Health Sciences is designed to develop and facilitate the ability to conduct research and understand the practical value of designing, conducting, interpreting, and reporting behavioral and social science research findings in the health science and medical fields. The book provides complete coverage of the process behind these research methods, including information-gathering, decision formation, and results presentation. Examining the application of behavioral and social science research methodologies within the health sciences, the book focuses on implementing and developing relevant research questions, collecting and managing data, and communicating various research perspectives. An essential book for readers looking to possess an understanding of all aspects of conducting research in the health science field, Understanding and Conducting Research in the Health Sciences features: Various research designs that are appropriate for use in the health sciences, including single-participant, multi-group, longitudinal, correlational, and experimental designs Step-by-step coverage of single-factor and multifactor studies as well as single-subject and nonexperimental methods Accessible chapter explanations, real-world examples, and numerous illustrations throughout Guidance regarding how to write about research within the formatting styles of the American Medical Association and the American Psychological Association The book is an excellent educational resource for healthcare and health service practitioners and researchers who are interested in conducting and understanding behavioral and social science research done within the health sciences arena. The book is also a useful resource for students taking courses in the fields of medicine, public health, epidemiology, biostatistics, and the health sciences.


Biology -- Research.;Biology -- Methodology.

Electronic books.

QH308.2 -- .C866 2013eb