The Evolutionary Emergence of Language :

Knight, Chris.

The Evolutionary Emergence of Language : Social Function and the Origins of Linguistic Form. - 1 online resource (440 pages)

Cover -- Half-title -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- Contributors -- Acknowledgements -- Language: A Darwinian Adaptation? -- References -- PART I THE EVOLUTION OF COOPERATIVE COMMUNICATION -- 1 Introduction: The Evolution of Cooperative Communication -- References -- 2 Comprehension, Production and Conventionalisation in the Origins of Language -- The Priority of Comprehension -- Ritualisation -- Conventionalisation -- Signal Types -- Words and Conventionalised Gestures -- Conclusions -- References -- 3 Cooperation, Competition and the Evolution of Prelinguistic Communication -- 1. Language Origins and Darwinian Thought -- 2. Simulating the Evolution of Communication -- 3. Expensive Hype and Conspiratorial Whispers -- 4. Conflicts of Interest -- 5. A Simple Signalling Game -- 6. Stable Strategies in the Simple Game -- 7. An Evolutionary Simulation Model -- 8. A Game with Variable Signal Costs -- 9. Simulation Model with Continuous Signal Costs and Reception Threshold -- 10. Discussion of Results -- 11. Implications for Theories of Language Evolution -- Acknowledgement -- References -- 4 Language and Hominid Politics -- 1. Introduction: The Language Gap -- 1.1. Uniqueness of Relevant Speech -- 1.2. Linguistic Relevance and Biological Relevance -- 2. Beyond Symmetrical Cooperation -- 2.1. Evolution of Symmetrical Cooperation -- 2.2. Inverse Cheat Detection -- 3. Language and Coalition Formation -- 3.1. A Social Role for Language -- 3.2. Language as a Heterogeneous Exchange -- 3.3. Hominid Politics -- 3.4. A Simplified Account of Language Origin -- 4. Discussion -- Notes -- References -- 5 Secret Language Use at Female Initiation: Bounding Gossiping Communities -- A Prototype for Ritual: Cosmetics and Female Coalitions -- Bantu Puberty Ceremonial: Cosmetics, Control and Secret Language. The Venda School of Vhusha/Domba as a System of Reciprocity -- Bemba Chisungu: Gossip, Esoteric Knowledge and Ritual Hierarchy -- Kpe Liengu Cult: Across Ethnic Boundaries -- Factors Leading to Elaboration of Mechanisms to Counter Freeriders -- Conclusion: Relevance, Gossip and Secret Knowledge -- References -- 6 Play as Precursor of Phonology and Syntax -- Precursors of Compositional Speech -- 'Phonological' Versus 'Lexical' Syntax -- Language and Animal Play -- Language and Laughter -- Play and the Emergence of Language -- Conclusion: The Emergence of Syntactical Speech -- Acknowledgement -- References -- PART II THE EMERGENCE OF PHONETIC STRUCTURE -- 7 Introduction: The Emergence of Phonetic Structure -- References -- 8 The Role of Mimesis in Infant Language Development: Evidence for Phylogeny? -- Mimesis in the Developing Infant -- Infant Entrainment into Symbolic Word Production -- The Child's Empathic Identification with Caretakers -- The Child's Move from Syllabic Babbling to First Words -- Prerequisites for the Referential Use of Words -- Evidence for Phylogeny? -- References -- 9 Evolution of Speech: The Relation Between Ontogeny and Phylogeny -- From Primate Calls to Speech: The Frame/Content Theory -- What Is the Evidence for an Evolutionary Increase in Speech Complexity? -- A Possible Parallel Between Ontogeny and Phylogeny: Frames, Then Content -- The Frame Stage -- From Frames to Frame/Content -- Summary -- Acknowledgement -- References -- 10 Evolutionary Implications of the Particulate Principle: Imitation and the Dissociation of Phonetic Form from Semantic… -- Introduction -- The Nature of the Language Hierarchy -- Duality of Patterning -- Genes and Language -- The Particulate Principle of Self-Diversifying Systems -- The Dissociation of Sound and Meaning -- Units and the Vocal Mechanism -- Gestures. From Syllable to Gesture to Segment -- The Vocal Mechanism -- Imitation -- Vocal Imitation -- The Process of Vocal Imitation and the Loss of Meaning -- The Emergence of an Independent Level of Phonetic Representation -- Phonetic Memory: A Preadaptation for Displaced Reference and Syntax -- The Syllabic Origins of Phonetic Structure -- The Particulate Basis of Writing and Reading -- Summary and Conclusion -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 11 Emergence of Sound Systems Through Self-Organisation -- Introduction -- The Agents -- The Imitation Game -- Vowel Experiments -- Towards Complex Utterances -- Conclusions and Discussion -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 12 Modelling Language-Physiology Coevolution -- Introduction -- Computational Models of Language-Learning Populations -- Modelling Language-Physiology Coevolution -- Experiment 1: Language Negotiation in Populations of Homogeneous Language Capability -- Experiment 2: Language-Physiology Coevolution -- Experiment 3: Costly Language-Physiology Coevolution -- Experiment 4: Negotiation and Evolution Without Spatial Organisation -- Discussion -- Acknowledgements -- References -- PART III THE EMERGENCE OF SYNTAX -- 13 Introduction: The Emergence of Syntax -- Appendix on Syntactic Notation -- References -- 14 The Spandrels of the Linguistic Genotype -- Universal Grammar -- A UG Condition on Movement Traces -- Explaining Evolution -- Singularists and Pluralists -- The Condition Is Partially Dysfunctional -- Conclusion -- Note -- References -- 15 The Distinction Between Sentences and Noun Phrases: An Impediment to Language Evolution? -- 1. Introduction: Grammar as Historical Accident -- 2. The Sentence-NP Distinction as an Evolutionary Problem -- 3. A Scenario for the Origin of the Sentence-NP Distinction -- 4. Precise Implications of the Syllabic Model for Syntax. 5. Archaeological and Later Linguistic Evidence -- 6. Conclusion: Grammar as a Mixed Blessing -- Acknowledgements -- Notes -- References -- 16 How Protolanguage Became Language -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Reciprocal Altruism, the Social Calculus and the Roots of Syntax -- 3. Signal Coherence and Syntax -- 4. Baldwin Effects, Parsing and Speaker-Hearer Conflicts -- 5. Some Possible Objections -- 6. Conclusion -- References -- 17 Holistic Utterances in Protolanguage: The Link from Primates to Humans -- Introduction -- The Nature of Human Language -- Was Protolanguage Holistic? -- Explanatory Advantages of Continuity -- A Holistic Protolanguage -- Utterances in Protolanguage -- Levels of Abstraction and Generalisability -- Absence of Reference and Description -- Plausibility -- The Appearance of Grammar -- Why Did Grammar Appear? -- A Scenario -- Segmentation -- The Effect of Counterexamples -- What Happened Next? -- A Continuing Role for Holistic Sequences -- Note -- References -- 18 Syntax Without Natural Selection: How Compositionality Emerges from Vocabulary in a Population of Learners -- Introduction -- The Origins of Syntax -- A Computational Approach -- Features of a Desirable Model -- Utterances -- Individuals -- The Population Dynamic -- Results -- Stage I -- Stage II -- Stage III -- Summary of the Results -- Why Does This Model Work? -- Conclusion -- Notes -- References -- 19 Social Transmission Favours Linguistic Generalisation -- Introduction -- Assumptions -- Speaking/Invention and Hearing/Acquisition -- The World of Meanings -- About Rules -- The Simulation Cycle -- The Experiments -- Experiment 1: Syntactic Rules Supersede Idiosyncratic Lexical Items -- Experiment 2: Frequent Meanings Attract Idioms -- Experiment 3: Even Limited 'Rule Making' Makes Regular E-Language -- Experiment 4: A Binary Rule Supersedes Nonbinary Rules. Comments and Conclusions -- Summary -- Biocultural Coevolution -- Limits to the Favouring of General Rules -- How This Model Relates to Others -- The Last Word -- Notes -- References -- 20 Words, Memes and Language Evolution -- Summary -- Words as Memes -- Language Change by Evolution of Word Feature Structures -- Examples of Word Evolution -- Semantic Role Selection -- Verbs of Motion -- Language Universals -- Regularity and Irregularity -- Biological and Cultural Evolution -- References -- 21 On the Reconstruction of 'Proto-World' Word Order -- Motivating a 'Proto-World' Word Order of SOV -- SOV Proto-Order and UG Constraints -- An Important Caution -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgement -- Notes -- References -- EPILOGUE -- 22 The History, Rate and Pattern of World Linguistic Evolution -- A Brief History of Language Diversity -- Extant Linguistic Diversity -- The Total Number of Languages Ever Spoken -- Evolutionary Forces Producing Language Change -- Rates of Language Evolution -- Rates of Word Evolution in the Fundamental Vocabulary -- Patterns of Variation in Linguistic Diversity -- Variation in the Density of Languages -- Ecological Forces Producing Language Change -- Phylogenetic Trends, Linguistic Diversity and Rates of Culturogenesis -- Epilogue -- References -- Author Index -- Subject Index.

This book covers the origins of language, combining social and natural science perspectives.

9780511148477


Language and languages--Origin.


Electronic books.

P116 .E93 2000

417.7