Creation and Returns of Social Capital :

Flap, Henk.

Creation and Returns of Social Capital : A New Research Program. - 1 online resource (241 pages) - Routledge Advances in Sociology Ser. ; v.9 . - Routledge Advances in Sociology Ser. .

Book Cover -- Half-Title -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- Figures -- Tables -- Notes on the contributors -- Preface -- Abbreviations -- Part I Introduction to the program -- 1 Creation and returns of social capital -- The history of the social capital idea -- The theoretical backbone of the program -- The concept of social capital -- State of the art: the program works -- A research agenda of theoretically inspired problems -- (a) What are the main constituents of social capital and how are they distributed? -- (b) How do various effects of a person's social capital depend on its constituents? -- (c) How do social resources interact with other resources? -- (d) How is social capital created and maintained? -- (e) How do contact opportunities influence the rise of social capital? -- (f) What is the effect of social institutions on social capital? -- (g) How are 'property rights' of social capital defined? -- (h) How does social capital contribute to social inequality and cohesion? -- (i) What is the mechanism behind the productivity of social capital? -- (j) How should social capital be measured? -- Concluding remarks -- Note -- References -- Part II The distribution of social capital -- 2 The distribution of gendered social capital in Canada -- Why should we study gendered social capital? -- The formation of gendered social capital -- The data and measures -- The data sources -- Measures of social capital -- Predictors of social capital -- Results -- Basic facts about gender and social capital -- Social capital: a life-course approach -- Ascribed characteristics -- Education -- Work -- Household income -- Family life -- Voluntary associations -- Social capital and kinds of places -- Atlantic Canada -- Urban versus rural -- Social capital for the whole sample -- Social capital for men and women -- Conclusions -- Note -- References. 3 Does social capital offset social and economic inequalities? -- The volume and structure of social capital as a resource -- Data -- The survey -- The name generator -- Household differentiation variables -- Main findings -- One-/two-way support -- Kin and non-kin exchange -- Palliative economic effects of support networks? -- Capital accumulation -- Support and living standards -- Are there any utilitarian attitudes to support? -- Discussion: the social capital metaphor -- Notes -- References -- Part III The creation of social capital -- 4 Information and the creation and return of social capital -- The experimental method and social capital -- The experiment -- The public good game -- Dictator game -- Treatment variable-information -- Research hypotheses: creation and returns of social capital -- The creation of social capital -- The returns of social capital investment -- Results -- Behavior in the public good game -- Behavior of dictators and non-dictators -- Returns of social capital -- Behavior in the dictator game -- Concluding remarks -- Notes -- References -- 5 Social capital in exchange networks -- Theory and simulation of exchange networks -- Types of power in networks -- How social capital increases -- Conclusions -- Notes -- References -- Part IV The returns of social capital -- 6 Social capital in education -- Theory -- Resources and educational outcomes -- Social capital in education -- Second-order and public social capital -- Research questions -- Social capital in functional communities -- Measuring social capital -- Data set and dependent variables -- Measurement of social capital -- Social structure -- Intergenerational social closure -- Intra-generational social closure -- Resources -- Monitoring -- Information -- Value congruence and social norms -- Preliminary conclusions. The explanation of educational returns of social capital -- Variance components and model fit -- Conclusion and discussion -- Appendices 1 to 5 (list of items and scales) -- 1. Intergenerational social closure (according to student): average sum score (1-4) of: -- 2. Intergenerational social closure (according to parents): average sum score (1-4) of: -- llowing items (alpha=0.71): ... -- ore (1-4) of scale with the following items (alpha=0.81): ... -- e sum score (1-4) of scale with the following items (alpha=0.76): ... -- Notes -- References -- 7 Job search in urban China -- Issues and hypotheses -- Data and the analytic plan -- Use of contacts and other job-search methods -- Chains of contacts-some descriptive statistics -- Accessing social capital: hypothesis testing -- Further discussion -- Return of social capital: use of embedded resources in job search -- Concluding remarks -- Appendix: Estimating selectivity bias for users of social contacts -- Notes -- References -- 8 Social networks and performance at work -- Earlier research on networks and performance -- Obstacles to the empirical study of the problem -- Existing explanations of work performance -- Networks in the explanation of work performance -- Conditions that affect performance and make networks productive -- Organizational characteristics -- Job characteristics -- Individual characteristics -- Summary of our expectations -- Design and measurement -- The social survey of the networks of the Dutch (SSND1) -- Measurements in the SSND1 -- The independent variables -- The dependent variable -- Results -- Quality and quantity of work performance -- Conclusion and discussion -- Notes -- References -- Part V Measurement of social capital -- 9 Proposals for the measurement of individual social capital -- What do we mean by 'social capital'? -- The individual or collective level?. Specificity to certain populations and certain goals -- How to measure social capital? -- Access or use measure -- Multiple measures -- Counting resources in a social network -- Resource domains and measure construction -- Positive and 'negative' social resources -- Selection of social resource items -- Empirical results: four subscales -- Conclusion -- Note -- References -- 10 Measuring social capital by network capacity indices -- Preliminaries on reachability and distances -- Distance-based capacity measures -- Influence of uncertainty on capacity -- Random reachability -- Collective capacity measures -- Statistical inference on capacity measures -- References -- Part VI Social capital at the collective level -- 11 Social capital and economics -- Making sense of a family of concepts -- Social capital as rational trust -- Family roots: social contract, third-party enforcement and transaction costs -- Three alternative theories: production, transaction, and monitoring -- The idea that social capital is capital -- Is Ω a factor of production or a transaction cost factor? -- Social capital as a monitoring cost factor -- Measuring social capital: the micro and the macro level -- A minimalist approach: how much do we need to begin? -- Concerning condition B (different) -- Concerning condition C (operational) -- Measurement by sampling individual social capitals. Areas, groups and nations -- Some questions for polls: generalized trust, special trust and trust payoff -- The quick and easy way: reading Putnam's instrument -- A note on the first attempts at measurement -- Changing social capital: the dilemma of third-party enforcement -- Cooperative movements: some cases -- Business and social capital: entrepreneurial skills versus social capital explanations -- Observing development projects-social capital as a device for controlling costs17. Low social capital as a hypothesis explaining the slow transition from socialism18 -- Carrots, sticks and social capital -- Concluding remarks -- Notes -- References -- 12 Role and rise of social capital -- Social capital at different levels -- The specific role of social capital in status attainment -- Hypotheses -- Data and methods -- Raw links between social capital and status -- The net effect of social capital -- Rise of social capital? -- Increasing recourse to social capital for job hunting -- Growth of social participation and trust -- Conclusion -- Notes -- References -- Name index -- Subject index.


Social capital (Sociology).

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